Sic Bo – Your Best Bet For Fun In Casino Games by Andy Follin

12bet ทางเข้า Not all online casinos offer Sic Bo, and there are some differences between software platforms and individual casinos. Neither bet wins if three dice of the same value occur ? that?s where the house has its edge.

This explains why experienced Western gamblers stay away from Sic Bo, seeing it instead as a leisure game for wealthy ladies with no understanding of ?real? gambling.

Strategists can use a system to extract a profit from Sic Bo using these bets. I know I shouldn?t ? all the ?serious? gamblers out there tell me I?m wasting my time, that it?s a mug?s game.

But there?s something about the atmosphere of the game ? the colors, the sounds, the lights ? that really excites me.

For fun in the casino, I think it?s unbeatable.

But a deeper look into the odds of the game shows that good bets exist for those looking to apply one of the many betting systems devised over the centuries to take advantage of even money bets ie those with a 50% of occurring. If fortune is smiling on you, you are seen as blessed.

Big is a bet that the total on all three dice will be 11 to 17. Before you play, consult a guide to online Sic Bo, such as the one at Fortune Palace which tells you what to look out for ? and where to find it!

But to me, this is missing the point of the game. The dice are rolled in an egg-timer shaped cage to remove any suspicion of foul play. Whilst no casino games has exactly a 50% chance, some lie close. For those who don?t already know, Sic Bo (pronounced See Bo) is an ancient Chinese game and one of the so-called Big Four games beloved of Asian and Far Eastern players. These areas are always characterized by their noisy, exciting atmosphere in which huddles of players stake vast amounts of cash on seemingly mystifying games with exotic-sounding names.

I love Sic Bo. To understand the games, you must understand why Asian and Far Eastern gamblers play them. When the cage stops spinning, the results are displayed to the players, amidst much noise and confusion!

If you prefer to gamble online ? as I do ? you?ll find that Sic Bo is very faithfully represented. In Sic Bo, these bets are the Big and Small bets.

As one of the Big Four, it falls into the category of ?Fortune? games. As a ?Fortune? game, I don?t see Sic Bo as a fast track to riches, but as an enjoyable pastime and a way to see if fortune is smiling on me.. The look and feel is right and it captures the excitement very well. Players have a variety of betting options on the roll of those dice. Instead, they see these games as a way to test themselves against the world. The most popular of these gambling systems are explained and tested at Fortune Palace.

Sic Bo literally means “dice pair”, but is actually played with three dice. Every casino has an area set aside for its Asian client?le. Unlike the typical gambler, they are not necessarily seeking to get rich quick. To the Asian and Far Eastern player, luck is considered a moral attribute. Small is a bet that the total will be 4-10

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Online Gambling Sites Fight Addiction

Gambling organizations today are putting their best feet forward to participate as equal community partners in the fight against gambling addiction, with the type of support that draws on psychological as well as behavioral science to prevent or self-detect addiction.

LCW says that its help line is seeing more and more calls from people experiencing financial problems as a result of online gaming.  Online addiction support group Lifeline Central West identifies the emergence of online gaming as one of the organization’s biggest challenges for 2015.

On a smaller scale, online gambling and betting sites provide both direct support lines as well as preventative information for users to monitor their own behaviour to avoid falling prey to addiction.  However, those who benefit the most from gambling behaviour also serve as among the best resources for addiction support. The state’s Online Gaming Self-Exclusion Registration enables citizens to voluntarily remove themselves from online gambling activities for a period of one or five years.

March Support

When Madness Turns to Addiction

From state regulators to gambling websites, the biggest proponents of online gambling are also taking the most active roles in fighting addiction.

Published March 22, 2015

Ethical Online Promotion

“Online gambling sites are adding effective programming to their sites to prevent addiction.”

.  In a perfect world efficient, responsible support from online betting and gambling providers certainly has the potential to curb addiction worldwide. Gambling sites have their own “self-exclusion” programs as well.

However, to sports fans and non-sports fans alike, this amount of stimulation can also be addicting, and one has to remain careful that addiction does not overwhelm one’s pocketbook.

March Madness is certainly a profitable time for fun88 login online sports bettors. Addictive personality disorders make addicts.  Today, all gamblers can test themselves in the exact same place where they bet.

Gambling and responsibility are not contradictory terms.  March Madness is as good a time as any to self-test for addiction. In the online gaming industry, they are rapidly becoming synonymous, as gambling sites provide increasingly progressive support for addiction.

March Madness is a wondrous time for online betting: 64 teams, 67 consistently thrilling elimination games playing around the clock; a huge bonus for picking the champion–the nirvana of modern-day one-click sports betting.

Financial Woes for Addicts

Today, gambling remains one of the most prominent, if not the most prominent, forms of addiction.     

Gambling Sites Fight Addiction?

As much as the industry loves the NCAA tournament, no one wants anyone entangled in a cycle of disproportionate and costly betting. Problem betting behaviour remains an unfortunate reflection on what remains primarily a fun and safe activity.

Gambling does not make addicts. Further, online gambling providers such as BETAT Casino and Winner Casino offer self-test quizzes for users to determine if their gambling qualifies as problem behaviour before the addiction consumes them. However, help is just as close.

In one of the few states in the US currently allowing online gaming, the New Jersey government recently launched a new service through its Division of Gaming Enforcement. The online option brings the availability of gambling right to one’s home

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Horse Racing Betting Strategy

It counts as nil, if the horse won the race. You need to do a lot of homework and analysis of the horses in the race, and the bets put on them. Keep in mind that there is some problem if the horse has not been a part of a race for several months. All The Be(s)t!

Discard the thought of betting on horses whose last 2 races were not on the same track as the current race you want to bet on.

Avoid playing any race with more than 2 first-time starters.

Even if there is a difference of only a furlong (more or less) in the current race and the last race of a horse, avoid betting on that horse.

If the horse was not leading or was not within 3 lengths of the leader at every call in his last race, eliminate the thought of betting on that horse.

If the last two races of the horse were on a different surface, do not even consider the horse for betting.

Dutch Betting System: Not a handicapping method, this system is employed to cover a number of horses in a race. For a viable and feasible strategy, check out the training as well as the previous race performances of that particular horse. Disclaimer: This Buzzle article is for informative purposes only, and does not promote m88 asia gambling and betting in any way.

A horse whose trainer has a 10% winning percentage, gets 2 points.

Check out the last 2 races of each horse, and then add the total length by which each of them was defeated. It is a game of luck. You cannot claim to have found the best horse betting strategy, because you cannot win 10 out of 10 times, when you gamble. These systems are very important while determining a racing strategy. Indulge in some sports betting.

Basics

To begin with, betting is an activity which needs the individual to have good number of gray cells, as you need to give a lot of thought to it. The same holds true for a strategy. The basic premise of the system being, the more horses you bet on, the higher possibility of winning you have.

Points Based: By now I guess you must have got a hang of the terms, at least on a primary level. It is after all, a gamble, a risk. The atmosphere is fantastic. If you are single, well, then you never know, you might get a prize catch, or at least just have fun seeing the beautiful four-legged beasts running in full glory. Before you place any serious wager, check whether it has undergone any new training program which it has been exposed to prior to any of its wins. Even primary or a general information about the fitness level of the horses concerned, can be helpful.

Speed Selection: This system involves eliminating horses, on the basis of several criteria. But that does not mean that you do not do your homework and bet on the right horse. A person betting on a horse needs to know what are the distances that horse excels in and accordingly plan his or her strategy. Here are a few of them.

There are many more intricacies and nitty-gritty involved in betting; this was just a teaser.

Ultimately, there is no universal tip which is foolproof and ensures a 100% win. It is also important to know how effective that training has been. Get to know everything about it. There are other factors which need to be considered too. This has to be done consistently to develop a good betting strategy. Hence, if a horse is known to be excellent for short distances, it would be foolish to bet on him for long distance races.. Another tip is the length of a particular race. So moving on, this system entails betting on horses and giving points to them according to the following rules:

On a bright, sunny day, when you have your pockets full and don’t know what to do, I would say just go to the racecourse. The horse with the lowest number in this process, will get 3 points.

Add a point for the horse, if his last race was on turf and the current is a route race on dirt.

A horse with a jockey having a 10% winning rate or better, wins 1 point.

Betting System

These systems and strategies, apart from the factors related to the horse are also dependent on financial systems like hedging and arbitrage. For instance, anyone interested should pay close attention to the fitness of the horse. These are:

Furthermore, take a close look at the horse you want to bet on. Hedging refers to betting on multiple outcomes in a race, and arbitraging refers to (in this context) laying the horse at a low price and backing it at a higher price

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Place your bets | Fox News

That’s the “spread” posted by bookies. Why?

They do, and states give worse odds than bookies.

The pundits don’t know. Click here for more information on John Stossel.

There’s knowledge to be tapped in people’s heads about what will happen next, and markets, as usual, are the best way to unleash that wisdom.

Silver writes, “There is an obvious appetite among sports fans for a safe and legal way to wager.”

But bills to legalize betting go nowhere in Congress. Bootleggers got rich off Prohibition.

Last month, I wrote about how U.S. With money on the line, forecasts are more accurate.

By the way, Betfair now gives Hillary Clinton a 40 percent chance of being the next president. Stossel also appears regularly on Fox News Channel (FNC) providing signature analysis. Prediction markets like Betfair, PredictIt.com and Predictious.com allow bettors to predict everything from the gender of England’s next royal baby to the winner of the next Nobel Peace Prize.

“Bootleggers and Baptists” is what economist Bruce Yandle called these coalitions. They also deprive Americans of useful information, such as who is likely to be the next president.

Luckily, the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission recently gave New Zealand’s University of Wellington permission to run a prediction market in the U.S. Most states offer lotteries.”

In Maryland, most polls had the Democratic candidate for governor up by double digits, but the Republican won. They are joined by people who consider gambling immoral.

Second, people are more realistic when betting than when answering a survey. Casinos oppose them because they don’t want competition. It gave 89 percent odds that Republicans would win the Senate.

In 2012, Intrade gave Obama a 90 percent chance of winning, while pundits still said the race was “too close to call.” Gallup predicted a Romney win.

Most of these bets are illegal. When politicians allow people to put their money where their mouths are, bettors do a better job predicting future events. In 2012, conservative pundits confidently predicted a Romney victory. Except they aren’t so great either.

.

Unfortunately, regulators will allow no more than 5,000 traders to make bets on a given contract (that is, a predicted outcome), and each trader can bet no more than $850. Polls suffer from a “self-reporting bias,” where participants say what they think they should rather than what they actually feel. This year, Democrats predicted they’d keep the Senate. We in the media try to rely on “scientific” polls. People figure these expert guesses are the best anyone can do.

Legalization efforts might get farther if we stopped thinking of betting as a vice and instead recognized that it’s a useful part of rational decision-making.

Newspapers and websites all over America tell their readers that Dallas is favored by three points. Bettors are better.

The Iowa Electronic Markets has outperformed political polls 74 percent of the time since 1988. Millions will be m88 asia bet on that game, and billions will be bet on other games this weekend — college football, NBA games, NHL matches, UFC events …

So allowing betting helps us make better predictions about the future.

Just as Prohibition created Al Capone, bans on betting create crime. On average, polls underestimated Republican performance by 4 percent.

Pollsters and pundits rarely suffer much penalty for being wrong. regulators shut down Intrade, a site that allowed people to bet on all sorts of things. Before elections, Intrade’s bettors consistently out-predicted the pundits.

In the New York Times, he wrote, “Gambling has increasingly become a popular and accepted form of entertainment in the United States. That will limit the site’s prediction ability, but at least America will allow one site that will generate real predictions instead of just hot air.

Want to bet on Thursday’s NFL game between Chicago and Dallas? I do.

Legalization efforts might get farther if we stopped thinking of betting as a vice and instead recognized that it’s a useful part of rational decision-making.

Although American regulators killed Intrade, the British online prediction market Betfair still operates. The site, PredictIt.com, allows users to bet on elections, court cases, regulatory decisions and more.

First, although individual bettors are no more enlightened than any one pundit, a large and diverse group of bettors usually is.

Recently, National Basketball Association commissioner Adam Silver became the first major professional sports commissioner to endorse legalizing sports betting.

But they aren’t. This is not a good thing. 

John Stossel is the host of “Stossel” (Thursdays at 9 PM/ET), a weekly program highlighting current consumer issues with a libertarian viewpoint

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Gambling Web Site Taking Bets on Global Warming

“You can wager on things in the headlines.”

Soon after, however, Galina Mashnich and Vladimir Bashkirtsev, two Russian solar physicists who argue global temperatures are driven by changes in the Sun’s activity, agreed to Annan’s bet.

An MIT meteorologist said three years ago that he would bet money that global average temperatures would cool back down in 20 years.

Scientists do it

– Humans will find a way to reverse global warming so efficiently that global freezing becomes a factor by 2020 Yes: 300/1

o Click here to visit FOXNews.com’s Natural Science Center.

“This is where the advantage is to the player,” Richards said in a telephone interview. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

– Cape Canaveral is submerged by 2015 Yes: 100/1

– Cape Hatteras is submerged by 2015 Yes: 300/1

One scientist took the wagering meteorologist, Richard Lindzen, up on his bet, but the deal fell apart over a disagreement about odds.

– It’s proven that humans caused global warming beyond any scientific doubt before Dec. The loser will pay up in 2018.. “His wallet thinks it is a 2 percent shot. “A couple of colleagues have offers on the table, but there are no takers on the other side,” he added.

“Most people who claim to be contrarians and say, ‘The planet is going to cool,’ none of them will put their money where their mouth is,” he said. I don’t expect anyone in any official position to use that exact form.”

Global Warming Related Bets Offered by BetUS.com (see notes below regarding * and #):

However, no wager was ever settled on because Lindzen wanted odds of 50-to-1 in his favor.

“It’s part of a campaign we’ve been doing for the past two and a half years called ‘pop culture gaming,'” Richards said. “Unlike sports, where there are set formulas and statistics and numbers, these are variables that we can’t anticipate.”

The two camps have agreed to compare global temperatures between 1998 and 2003 with those between 2012 and 2017. 31, 2007 Yes: 2/1*#

But scientists warn the odds are designed to part suckers from their cash.

“300-to-1 might make this worth considering, I suppose,” Annan said.

“Richard Lindzen’s words say that there is about a 50 percent chance of [global] cooling,” Annan wrote about the bet. ‘Beyond any scientific doubt’ is poorly worded though. “Anyone who puts money on that would be an idiot.”

The quote triggered a flurry of Internet dialogues and prompted scientists to challenge each other to make bets on climate-change issues.

James Annan, a climate scientist at the Frontier Research Center for Global Change in Japan, said many of the bets are “silly” and mostly of the “Elvis will be found alive and living on the Moon” type.

A dozen analysts combed through scientific studies on global warming to create the odds, Richards said.

– The ocean will rise six inches by the end of the year (worldwide as an average) Yes: 150/1

One bet gives members 1-to-5 odds that scientists will prove global warming exists beyond any scientific doubt by the end of this year.

– Antarctica will become livable for humans by 2015 (must be able to sustain crops in order for wager to win) Yes: 500/1

Another gives 100-to-1 odds that polar bears will be extinct by 2010.

– Cape Cod is submerged by 2015 Yes: 150/1

BetUS.com spokesman Reed Richards said the company will personally back numerous bets, or “propositions,” posted on the m88 asia Web site related to global warming.

However, there is one bet Annan said he might consider.

While new to most of us, betting on global warming is old hat to some scientists.

A measure of truth

Pop culture gaming

The service, BetUS.com, announced it will give members a chance to wager on various global warming-related issues.

– Polar bears will become extinct by 2010 Yes: 100/1

(A complete list of all the global-warming related bets is listed at the end of this article.)

*To qualify as proven, “the government would have to announce in a statement that the study is without flaw and also conclude it is real without any scientific doubt,” BetUS.com spokesman Reed Richards said.

This meant that for a $10,000 bet, Annan would have to pay Lindzen the entire sum if temperatures dropped, but receive only $200 if they rose.

– Cape May is submerged by 2015 Yes: 200/1

Now an online gambling service is giving the public a chance to do what scientists have been doing among themselves for years.

– Manhattan will be under water before 12/31/11 Yes: 100/1

Schmidt said betting on global warming is a good measure of a global warming nay-sayer’s conviction.

“There have been a few nibbles since but nothing substantial has turned up,” Annan said in an email interview.

“Do they have any idea how high the peak of Manhattan is?” Schmidt said.

A risky wager

For example, scientists could achieve this chilling effect by injecting enough sun-blocking dust into the atmosphere or placing a large sunshade in space.

Copyright © 2007 Imaginova Corp. Which do you believe?”

# Of these bets, James Annan said: “Under the definition of ‘the government says so,’ then we seem to be pretty much there, since the [U.S.] government has endorsed the IPCC report. All Rights Reserved. “It’s been a very good way of showing that a lot of the noise that you hear from the wackier elements is in fact just noise and actually is not based on anything.”

“It’s more like a billion to one,” Schmidt told LiveScience. 31, 2007 Yes: 1/5* #

“I said it will warm more than 0.1 degree [Celsius] in the next decade. Gavin Schmidt, a climate modeler at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York, said the bets are “designed to part fools from their money.”

Schmidt described one bet he personally negotiated with a Canadian paleoclimatologist one night over a dinner that included wine.

Since 2005, Annan said he has offered to make bets with other global-warming skeptics.

– A car that runs solely on water will hit the market by 2008 (must be a stock car produced for mass consumption) Yes:150/1

Another bet for the taking has odds of 100-to-1 that Manhattan will be under water by 2012.

In 2005, Annan offered to take Lindzen, the MIT meteorologist, up on his bet that global temperatures in 20 years will be cooler than they are now.

“This is really more technological and political speculation than climate science,” Annan said.

For example, one of the bets the Web site offers is 150-to-1 odds that the oceans will rise six inches on average worldwide by the end of the year.

Few climate scientists seem willing to bet against the effects of global warming. He said it would warm less than that,” Schmidt said. “But then in the morning, when he may have sobered up, and I tried to get a confirmation that was the bet that we had, I heard no more.”

Richards said “thousands” of people have already placed money on the company’s global-warming bets, with $10 being the average wager.

BetUS.com is offering odds of 300-to-1 that humans will find a way to reverse global warming so efficiently that global freezing becomes a factor by 2020.

– Cape Henry is submerged by 2015 Yes: 200/1

– Florida will be under water before 12/31/11 Yes: 10/1

(The highest natural point in Manhattan is 265 feet above sea level)

Climate scientists disagree that the public has the upper hand.

– It’s proven that global warming exists beyond any scientific doubt before Dec

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A Beginners Guide To Betting On Greyhound Racing

Many times, these prizes are outlined with the bet that is being made, allowing even beginners to determine the potential prize that is available with the bet that has been made.

Choosing between the many greyhound racing websites that are available is simple, when the reputation of the website is compared with the races and the bets that can be made.

. These odds are going to determine the likelihood of a certain dog coming in a certain place through the race.

The important odds to consider are the first, second and third for most bets that are being made. Online betting sites with “racebooks” set the greyhound racing betting odds.

The odds are available through the race and are created by the sports books. It is important to realize that the odds given for the race are accurate and the odds makers have years of experience in determining the results of the race and therefore the odds should be considered accordingly.

Many online racebooks allow the bettor to take part in betting practices without actually being in the local area, as they can showcase the matches online with the use of the streaming video that can be presented to clients, allowing the clients to watch the races that are being bet on, with ease.

How can you determine what the prize will be once the bet has been made? The prize that will be given to the successful bettor depends on two factors; the amount that has been bet and the odds that are placed on the bet that has been made.

Using these two factors, greyhound racing betting sites will determine the prize that is going to be awarded. Using the odds and learning about the dogs and the specifics of the sport can be a great way to get into greyhound racing betting online.

As one of the most popular types of animal racing in the world, greyhound racing betting has many different types of bets that can be made with many different types of outcomes. There are often multiple dogs that are involved in the race and the bets are made on the position that the dogs are going to arrive over the finish line

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. . 1952-1953).

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of “The Clone Look” would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen’s lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

Less Than Zero

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. . Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr.   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

***

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

From a front-line perspective

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. . It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. . Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

Ground Zero

Omega Man

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St.  

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

Update note:Dr. Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

False Positive

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

The Road to Zero. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

Mr. Louis. 

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa.

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

But, it doesn’t end there. 

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

This makes little sense. 

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54’s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

AIDS now had a face.

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

Dr. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

Air Canada

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

Gateway to the West

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ [“zero”] instead.

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. It was so unusual at the time

Examiner Exclusive: Adam Sellke Talks eSports And Casinos

We have some ideas that we’re not yet seeing out there, so it’s a very exciting time for us.

Sellke: I am not sure they should be… A potential downside to this might be that without rank verification, fees would be the only way to set or “regulate” skill level matches. That’s definitely the first step, but I’m not necessarily a big proponent of these machines. Most of these early examples aren’t that innovative and look a little uninspired.

Sellke: Like a lot of big incumbents, I am concerned that the casino industry has become complacent, or worse, lazy. Secondly, these game titles aren’t part of any bona fide eSports franchises. chats with Evolve Labs Founder Adam Sellke, who discusses the possible impact of eSports on casino culture.The founder/ co-founder of several startups (Surtsey, Madoi, Ripshark, Tunebloom, Evolve Labs and more), Sellke has served in individual contributor and management roles at Merck, BBDO, Carlson Companies, UnitedHealth Group and Best Buy. in my opinion, casino operators need to answer that question with more than “because we want them to be”. Presumably, these will enable a new level of head-to-head, skill-based competitions, playing true eSports titles. Fixing it starts with acknowledging a problem… First off, they call them “VGMs” or video game gambling machines. They don’t have the appeal that “real” eSports games have all over the world.

For more information on Evolve Labs, click here.

I personally think they should because casinos should be about grown-up entertainment. That’s death. And competitive eSports for money should be only allowed amongst grown-ups (or pros). and then committing to solve it. In a recent piece Sellke wrote on Gamasutra, he outlines why the Casinbusinessss must begin to adapt to reach a new sort of clientele and in this chat with Examiner, he takes it a step further, elaborating how eSports can play a role in that adaptation.

Esports is a watershed moment for the casino industry, but the industry will have to step out of its comfort zone in order to make it work for them.

Also, companies like Ourgame are opening large 14,000 square foot, 200 seat arenas in places like Beijing and Las Vegas. If it’s fun for free, it’s even more so for money.

National Video Games Examiner Patrick Hickey Jr.

Hickey Jr.: What games do you think would work best in a casino?

Hickey Jr.: What’s wrong with the casino industry and how could eSports help “fix” things?

Sellke: All you gotta do is look at your top MOBAs and other competitive titles. I haven’t seen how matchmaking would work, though. Perhaps a seat could be assessed various entry “fees”, where a higher entry fee would essentially correspond to tougher competition (similar to what you see in poker rooms). I fundamentally disagree that eSports should be considered gambling. Solving it will mean things have to change!

What if the answer is they shouldn’t be? What should casinos do to still participate in this shift in entertainment?

Hickey Jr.: Why should eSports be in a casino?. We have some interesting ideas on how to address skill-disparities, but we’re keeping that under wraps for now ;).

Patrick Hickey Jr.: How would eSports work in a casino?

Adam Sellke: We’re currently seeing skill-based, first-person gambling games coming onto casino floors. What form that entertainment takes is yet to be determined. A shark vs minnow environment could ensue. For example, companies like GameCo are licensing games for deployment in Atlantic City later this year. It seems to be more of a shoehorn solution where the industry is responding to the opportunity by trying to make eSports fit into what they know

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

 

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. . It was so unusual at the time . . many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

Mr. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr. 1952-1953).

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

***

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54’s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

False Positive

This makes little sense. 

AIDS now had a face.

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ [“zero”] instead.

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Louis. 

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

But, it doesn’t end there. 

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

Update note:Dr. . . Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

The Road to Zero

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

Ground Zero

Less Than Zero

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role.   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

Dr. By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of “The Clone Look” would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen’s lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

From a front-line perspective

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

Omega Man

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

Gateway to the West

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

Air Canada

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age)

Top 10 Reasons For Visiting A Casino

This is another very common reason for visiting a casino. This is not a reason that you’d expect to come up too frequently in people’s minds, but it is nevertheless true. Many people decided to venture down to the casino because they were feeling bored and did not know where else to go, or what else to do on a Friday or Saturday night.

Reason 4: To socialize. Catching up with friends and socializing was another very common reason for visiting a casino.

Reason 7: Someone brought me here. Many people go to a casino because they work there, be it as a dealer, showgirl or a waitress.

Reason 10: There was no solid reason 10, but a collection of funny, strange and weird answers such as “I needed to use the bathroom” and “Someone owes me money”.

Reason 6: Boredom. Be it the couple who decided to meet at the casino on a date or the single man or woman who is hoping to meet someone interesting, casinos are apparently great venues for meeting interesting new people.

Reason 8: To learn how to play the games.

So as you can see, people don’t just visit casinos in order to gamble, but for a variety of interesting reasons.

Reason 5: Employment. Not suprisingly, this was the main reason as you can probably guess by looking around the game tables and slot machines.

By: Adel Awwad

Reason 2: To eat and drink. A few people attended the casino to watch and learn how to play some of the casino games.

Over the course of a few weeks, I conducted a very brief survey, asking randomly chosen casino visitors one simple question. Written by casinoguide.ws and popularcasinos.net This document may be freely redistributed in its unedited form and on the condition that all copyright references are kept intact.

Reason 9: Romance. The question was, “Why did you visit this casino today?” Besides receiving an odd look every now and then, I managed to get a range of different reasons why people visit casinos.

Reason 1: To gamble. Someone decided to visit the casino and bring their partner, relative, friend or colleague along.

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Reason 3: Entertainment. Whether it’s to see a comedy, magic, singing or dancing show, entertainment is a major factor when it comes to drawing casino visitors.

Copyright © 2005. While some singles and couples attended the casino to enjoy a few drinks at the bar, others were more interested in dining out at the casino restaurant.

How To Master Sports Betting

It’s all about accumulating winnings. The weather conditions also make a difference as they do in horse racing. Over time, you will learn what it should be that you should be paying attention to.

Because of this point, it is probably better if you steer clear from any matches involving the teams that you like. You don’t want to lose money just because you weren’t on top of your game.

The most important thing is that you need to take emotion out of the equation. Anything less than this and it is going to be a disaster. You shouldn’t favor a team because they are the team your best friend supports. Upsets are always going to happen but see when it makes the most sense when to go for that and when not to. Look for value bets. On the flip side, you shouldn’t bet against a team because someone you don’t like roots for that team. This means that when you place your bets you need to be thinking clearly and concisely. If you are going to do it you need to do it properly and master it, it means you are completely organized and focused. So if you suffer a bad break along the way, just remember it goes with the territory. You want to know who trained and who didn’t. It could provide great insight as to predicting what will occur.

Sports betting is an easy way to make a tough living. For instance, if you are pretty certain that a side is going to win and they are getting good odds for this than take this. What is the point of drowning yourself in statistics and research for what you could just as easily decided with a flip of the coin? So you need to sift through it all and just take the morsels here and there which are really important and make a difference. You will be better off for doing so in the long run.. It is only going to place you in a difficult position and as much as you might think it won’t be, your decision making ability is going to be compromised. Also look into how sides perform the week after doing certain travel. Hopefully this kind of thinking will keep you grounded. You can’t let the highs and lows affect you too much.

Information and doing your homework is important, but you don’t want to full into the trap of information overload. Travel is a factor such as when East Coast sides travel to the West Coast and vice versa. So do yourself a favor and swear off them. It doesn’t matter if it is pretty or not.

In the case of team sports, injuries are important. Business is business and you need to be concentrating on who is going to win regardless of who likes and who doesn’t like which team.

Speaking of the long run, this is what you should be focused on. Thus when you are doing well, you will still be focused and when you aren’t doing so well you won’t be thinking that it’s the end of the world

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Biggest Gambling Countries In The World

Most profits go to education, arts and culture.

Finland

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568

Australia: Biggest Gambling Country in the World

Singapore

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517

Canada

Era of Online Gambling

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517

Gambling’s Famous Icons

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174

Australia is the craziest country when it comes to gaming and gambling.

Top Online Gambling Mistakes

Las Vegas is well-known as the gambling industry of the world; however, American people are not the biggest gamblers on Earth. H2 Gambling Capital has released the list of biggest gambling countries due to average gaming losses.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288

The most favorite gambling activity in Italy is electronic gaming machine. Furthermore, the slot machines named pokies are the most favorite game in Australia with an estimated number of 75-80 percent of problem gamblers. Reportedly, over 75 percent of adult Canadians took part in the games last year in which the most popular games are lotteries and Scratch and Win cards.. In this country, gaming companies bet people on whether the central bank’s interest will increase or not. Although the government has imposed an entry fee of S$100 ($80.50) for citizens entering the casino, the country’s gaming revenue is expected to hit $6.4 billion in 2011 and outpace Las Vegas.

Interestingly enough, the country’s national lottery company, Veikkaus, belongs to the government and is operated by the ministry of education. According to business advisory firm MAG Consulenti Associati, the electronic gaming makes up half of Italy’s total gaming revenues in first half of 2011.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568

Singapore offered the very first casino some years ago which then became the world’s third largest-gaming center after Macau and Las Vegas. Otherwise, Australia is the only country that allows online bets on sports but prevents gamblers from using the Internet to place bets during live games.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174

Australia

Italy

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The potash-rich province of Saskatchewan is home to the biggest gamblers in Canada

PGA golf betting odds for players to win the 2016 RBC Heritage

Bill Haas, Justin Thomas – 33 to 1 odds each

Aaron Baddeley – 140 to 1 odds

Notables

Stewart Cink has wins in this tournament in both 2000 and 2004. Thomas is 22 years old and he won for the first time on tour last November in the 2015 CIMB Classic.

Stewart Cink – 150 to 1 odds

T-8. Kuchar has seven PGA Tour wins but his last win was in the RBC Heritage in 2014. Paul Casey – 16 to 1

Brandt Snedeker tied with Jason Day last week in 10th place at the Masters. Weekley also won at Colonial in 2013 for three career PGA Tour wins. Charley Hoffman tied for 29th at the Masters last week. Snedeker also won this tournament in 2011.

After a 10th place tie in the Masters last week, Jason Day is still ranked as the #1 golfer in the world and he’s the fairly heavy favorite to win the 2016 RBC Heritage at betting odds of 5.5 to 1. He has 12 PGA Tour wins. Brandt Snedeker – 20 to 1

T-13. Kevin Kisner – 25 to 1

Davis Love III holds the record for most wins in this tournament with five but his last win here was in 2005. If Jason Day falters this week this kid could win.

7. He missed the cut last week but improvement is expected this week.

Boo Weekley – 140 to 1 odds

Carl Pettersson from Sweden won the RBC Heritage in 2012. He has four career PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2013. Tony Finau won for the first time on tour on March 27, 2016 at the Puerto Rico Open, an alternate PGA Tour event. He’s 44 years old and he has six wins on the PGA Tour with his last win coming in 2009 at The British Open for his only career major.

T-10. The rest of these golfers at 50 to 1 odds each did not play last week in the major.

Davis Love III – 250 to 1 odds

6. That was the last of his five PGA Tour wins. He’s a tough bet here at only 25 to 1 odds.

3. Matt Kuchar, Zach Johnson – 22 to 1 odds each

After being the low amateur at the Masters and tying for 21st place overall, Bryson DeChambeau is turning pro for the 2016 RBC Heritage.Not many golfers win their pro debuts and this guy should be higher than 66 to 1 odds this week.

Justin Leonard – 175 to 1 odds

Paul Casey tied for 4th at Augusta last week and now he’s the second choice in the betting odds to win this week at 16 to 1. Davis tied for 42nd last week at the Masters. He does have 13 European Tour wins but his last win was in 2014.

Graeme McDowell won the RBC Heritage in 2013. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 RBC Heritage golf tournament.

2. He has 21 PGA Tour wins including a shocker last year at the 2015 Wyndham Championship at age 51.

The RBC Heritage golf tournament dates back to 1969 when Arnold Palmer won the inaugural event. He’s a talented golfer but he never wins. Paul Casey has only won once on the PGA Tour back in 2009. Jason Dufner, Charles Howell, Charley Hoffman, Tony Finau, Luke Donald, Graeme McDowell – 50 to 1 odds each

Boo Weekley won the RBC Heritage in back-to-back years in 2007 and 2008. The big news for the 2016 RBC Heritage is that Jason Day is in the field and he is easily the highest ranked golfer here this week.

Bill Haas tied for 24th last week at the Masters. Baddeley missed the cut at Houston two weeks ago in his last start. Justin Thomas tied for 39th at the Masters. Billy Horschel tied for 17th at the Masters last week which is not bad but Horschel only has three tour wins and his last win was at the Tour Championship in 2014.

1. Justin Leonard won this tournament in 2002. Jason Day – 5.5 to 1 odds

Kevin Kisner tied for 37th place at the Masters last week. Charles Howell has two wins on tour in 463 starts. Justin Leonard is 43 years old and he has 12 PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2008.

The 2016 RBC Heritage golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from April 14-17, 2016, at the Harbor Town Golf Links at the Sea Pines Resort on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Billy Horschel, Branden Grace, Kevin Na – 40 to 1 odds each

Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 RBC Heritage!

Carl Pettersson – 225 to 1 odds

Bryson DeChambeau – 66 to 1 odds

Young 21 year old Matthew Fitzpatrick from England tied for 7th at the Masters earning himself a return trip next year. Fitzpatrick has a lot of talent and he won his first pro tournament last October at the 2015 British Masters on the European Tour. Boo made the cut in his last two tournaments but he was no threat to win either time.. Prior to The Masters, Jason Day won the Arnold Palmer and the WGC Match play in back-to-back weeks but he took a week off before the Masters. He’ll win this week if he’s back to his previous form but is 5.5 to 1 odds worth the risk?

Matt Kuchar tied for 24th at the Masters. Haas has six PGA Tour wins with his last win coming in January of 2015. Davis Love III (1987, 1991, 1992, 1998, 2003) holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five followed by Hale Irwin (1971, 1973, 1994) with three wins. Snedeker has eight PGA Tour wins including his latest win which was at the 2016 Farmers Insurance Open in early February. Matthew Fitzpatrick – 30 to 1

Luke Donald is a fomer #1 ranked golfer but he’s not won a tournament since 2012. Branden Grace missed the cut at the Masters last week but the 27 year old has seven European Tour wins including the 2016 Qatar Masters in January. He’s got three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2011.

Brian Gay won this tournament in 2009.

Listed below are all the PGA golfers with odds of 50 to 1 or less with comments. He’s 32 years old and his only PGA Tour win came last November in the RSM Classic. He missed the cut last week as did Jason Dufner. Zach Johnson has not won since capturing his second major at the 2015 British Open last July. Then a number of notable golfers are also listed with comments who have much higher odds this week to win the 2016 RBC Heritage.

Kevin Na has now played in 312 PGA events and he only has one win. Pettersson has missed the cut in his last two PGA tournaments.

Aaron Baddeley won the RBC Heritage in 2006. In his last start, Brian missed the cut at the Valspar Championship over a month ago.

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The Best Casinos for Blackjack in Las Vegas

Other Las Vegas casinos play with just one deck with small bets to attract players. Many tourists never leave it during their stay.

. This means if you hit a blackjack and your bet is $10 you’ll be paid $15 at a table with a 3:2 payout, but you’d win just $12 at a 6:5 paying table.

Player’s cards are cards offered at many casinos to gamblers who want to earn perks when they play. What is the strip? It’s about a 4 mile stretch of a street on Las Vegas Boulevard South. With small decks, you’ll probably be seeing the better odds of 3:2, more and more, you’ll start to see rates of 6:5. The odds in blackjack vary as much by casino as they do by table. Some casinos use 8 decks and a shuffling machine to increase the house odds (or casino’s odds) and to make card counting almost impossible. It has one of the highest concentrations of quality casinos and entertainment in the city. Depending on how much money you play with, you can earn quite a bit of complimentary gifts and discounts at restaurants, stores and theatres.

If you’ve heard of Las Vegas, then I’d bet you’ve heard of the strip