DIRECTV International Signs MOU with NBC Asia and BET International for Broadcast Rights on DIRECTV JAPAN’s Digital Platform

Michael L. Jenkins

Michael L. Jenkins

Hi my name is Michael L. Jenkins and I am a sport betting enthusiast. I write articles and review products and services related to Sports Betting Systems and Sports Book's. Please see my blog at Sport Betting Store for more great information on sports betting.
Michael L. Jenkins

(DTVI) has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with NBC Asia

and BET International as a consignor for DIRECTV JAPAN, the digital,

direct-to-home service scheduled to launch this fall. BET

International will be creating a new channel for the Japanese market,

BET on Jazz International. The agreement in principle

would position MCM Asia on DIRECTV JAPAN as the first French channel to

be broadcast on a Japanese television platform. NBC is currently the most popular and

highest-rated broadcast network in the United States.

/CONTACT: Kathleen Nitting, at MIP: 33-4-9293-5757, or Los

Angeles: 310-525-6306; or, Shigeyuki Homma of DIRECTV JAPAN, Tokyo,


SOURCE DIRECTV International, Inc.

“DTVI looks forward to concluding these deals on behalf of

DIRECTV JAPAN,” said Henry Watson, director of international

programming, DIRECTV JAPAN. cable channel, which

delivers an exciting mix of entertainment, sports, music, news and

public affairs.

NBC Asia’s agreement with DTVI would mark NBC’s first

entry into the Japanese market. (MELCO), Dai Nippon

Printing (DNP), and Hughes Electronics Corporation — developer of the

highly successful DIRECTV(R) service in the United States and Latin


-0- 04/16/97

CANNES, France, April 16 /PRNewswire/ — DIRECTV International,

Inc. sports, television dramas, talk shows and

children’s programming. That same month, The

Ministry of Post and Telecommunications authorized MCM international to

transmit in Japan.

When the agreement is finalized with DTVI, NBC will move forward

with its plan to create a special channel for the Japanese market,

combining programming from NBC in the U.S. (CCC), Matsushita Electrical Industrial Co.,


On Monday, April 14, at the conference, MCM International signed

a memorandum of understanding with DTVI. DTVI, a subsidiary of Hughes Electronics

Corporation and a shareholder of DIRECTV JAPAN MANAGEMENT, Inc., has

been actively procuring programs as one of the consignors for the


. When a final agreement

has been reached with DTVI, MCM International would provide exclusive

basic DTH carriage rights for the DIRECTV JAPAN platform. MCM Asia, the

French-speaking musical channel launched in August 1996 in the European

bouquet on Asiasat 2, is broadcast in most Asian and Oceanian countries,

including Australia, New Zealand, China and India. The channel will also

include programs from BET’s popular U.S. Black Entertainment Television has also agreed in

principle to join DIRECTV JAPAN’s programming lineup. Ltd. Japanese viewers can expect to see some of

NBC’s premiere programming, including the network’s news and

talk shows such as Best of the Today Show, NBC Nightly News Live, The

Tonight Show With Jay Leno and Dateline. This new channel will be

available for the first time nationwide in Japan when DIRECTV JAPAN

launches its nearly-100 channel service.

DTVI also signed a letter of intent with BET on Jazz

International. The letters of

intent, signed today at the MIP television programming conference,

reflect agreements in principle for DIRECTV JAPAN to hold broadcasting

rights for these networks. This 24-hour channel will combine news

programs from Asia and the United States, arts and documentary

programming, popular U.S. BET on Jazz International will embrace all

forms of jazz and is designed to entertain the jazz aficionado as well

as the novice with music performances, international and national jazz

festivals, music videos, interviews with the world’s leading jazz

artists, concerts and biographical features. “We believe the Japanese market will

embrace these popular international networks as part of DIRECTV

JAPAN’s premiere programming mix.”

MB-KS — LAW110 — 7301 04/16/97 21:48 EDT

MCM International Also Signed Letter of Intent for Carriage on


CO: DIRECTV International, Inc.; NBC Asia; BET International ST:

California IN: ENT SU: PDT

DIRECTV JAPAN is tapping into the enormous resources of its

partners to create a lineup of attractive and eclectic video, audio and

data programming for Japanese consumers. and its popular cable

networks CNBC and MSNBC. DTVJ partners are Culture

Convenience Club, Co. (MEI), Space Communications Corporation (SCC), Mitsubishi

Corporation (MC), Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. In addition, hot-ticket sports

events will be part of the lineup, including World Cup of Golf,

Breeders’ Cup and Notre Dame Football

The Arnolfini double portrait: a simple solution.

Michael L. Jenkins

Michael L. Jenkins

Hi my name is Michael L. Jenkins and I am a sport betting enthusiast. I write articles and review products and services related to Sports Betting Systems and Sports Book's. Please see my blog at Sport Betting Store for more great information on sports betting.
Michael L. Jenkins


Needless to say, a tomb marker was not a marriage document: like Van

Eyck’s Double portrait, such an image merely referred to matrimony as a key moment in the life of those depicted.

(42) Duby, op. 15), to which one

might compare another contemporary epitaph (Fig. 174.

(51) Ibid., p. cit., p. As Huizinga

reminds us, ‘the history of culture has just as much to do with

dreams of beauty and the illusions of a noble life as with population

figures and statistics.’ (50) A kind of tunnel vision may have

affected interpretations of Van Eyck’s Double portrait. 173-75, 219, plate 196;

Alfred Stange, Kritisches Verzeichnis der deutsehen Tafelbilder vor

Durer, Munich, 1967, vol. 190.

The dressing of sentiment in the garb of a suggestive form reaches

its highest development in mourning. She was particularly interested in the conventions observed

when ladies of various ranks were lying in. Huizinga portrays life at the Burgundian

court–precisely the world in which Jan van Eyck and the subjects of his

painting lived–where it was customary to take oaths taken for almost

any reason. cit., p. But is it a

straightforward portrait of two wealthy people, as he contends? More

crucially, is he correct in assuming that this is a second wife, of whom

we have no record, and with whom there were no recorded children? What

happens if we look at the portrait in an altogether different way? What

if it is of the deceased Costanza? It is my contention that Van

Eyck’s picture is a posthumous representation of Costanza, the only

wife of Giovanni di Nicolao of whose existence we find any evidence.


Within the context of an apparently normal, everyday setting, Van

Eyck provided his contemporary viewers with enough information to allow

them to recognise the conditions of Arnolfini’s loss. 5), would wear.

The work was painted before black clothing became de rigueur at the

Burgundian court. To cite another example of spatial

distortion, in Van Eyck’s Virgin in a Church in Berlin, the Virgin

stands as high as the clerestory of the nave.

There were no less than five Arnolfini in Bruges at the time who

could have commissioned the painting. cit., p. cit., p. Buchner, Dos Deutsche Bildnis der Spatgotik und der fruhen

Durerzeit, Berlin, 1953, fig. 11-24; J.B.

Bedaux, ‘The Reality of Symbols: the Question of Disguised

Symbolism in Jan van Eyck’s Arnolfini Portrait’, Simiolus,

vol. Carroll, ‘In the Name of God and Profit: Jan

van Eyck’s Arnolfini Portrait’, Representations, vol. Costanza and

Lionardo died. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, wore black and

created the fashion for it (Fig. 146

From Alienor we also learn that two silver candlesticks were kept

on the dresser in the lying in chamber of a lady; in the candlesticks

‘there must be two large wax candles, to be lighted when someone

comes to the chamber’, day or night. 186.

(19) For a thorough study of renaissance portrait formats and

covers, as well as iconography, see ibid.

(23) Ibid., p. 2, 3 and 4). Morio la Costanza e

Lionardo. 257.

Later painters borrowed from the composition of the Double

portrait, both for sacred and for secular subjects. Giovanni di Nicolao was married in 1426 to Costanza Trenta,

who like him came from a prominent family from Lucca. The

Queen of France had to stay an entire year in the room where she was

told of the death of her husband. (22)

(55) Dulberg, op. Benches were often decorated with carved lions; the

grotesque is perhaps less usual. cit., plate 11, for Jean Mielot presenting

his translation of the Traite sur l’oraison dominicale to Philip

the Good, c. 1500 (Evangelische-Lutheranische

Kirchengemeinde, Laurenberg an der Elbe). More than the other colors, blue and

green held symbolic significance and these meanings were so specific

that they nearly rendered both colors unsuitable for regular clothing.

Both were the colors of love: green symbolized the state of being in

love, blue faithfulness. XVI Autumn

1989, pp. 193.

Women, then, were hot permanent elements in the lineage. cit., p. 1r.

Panofsky argued that the dog in the foreground at the lady’s

feet, ‘seen on so many tombs of ladies, was an accepted emblem of

marital faith’, while Hall and Campbell, in contrast, each found

the Arnolfini dog to be devoid of symbolic significance. Indeed, their inclusion was common

artistic practice in this period in general: only rarely do we find a

northern renaissance portrait that did hot originally have a cover of

some kind. cit., Book I, lines 443-44: Promittas facito,

quid enim promittere laedit? Pollicitis diues quilibet esse potest

(77) A case in point is the representation of St Margaret on the

right wing of by Hugo van der Goes’s Portinari Altarpiere.

(8) Ibid., p. The rare presence of blue and

green should not, incidentally, be entirely regarded as a direct

expression of the sense of color. Panofsky, Tomb Sculpture: Its Changing Aspects from Ancient

Egypt to Bernini, New York, 1992 (lectures given in 1956), p. Christopher Wilson has shown that the architecture of

Van Eyck’s interiors is habitually made up of the elements of

several different buildings, and would most likely not stay up if built.


(5) Panofsky, op. cit., p. 44.

In 1857, Crowe and Cavalcascelle recognized the London Double

portrait as the one described in Margaret of Austria’s inventory,

and translated the Flemish/French corruption of the name ‘Hernoul

le Fin’ back into its original Italian, Arnolfini. 153-63.

(9) Ibid., p. 57.

On the other hand, this is not to suggest that within the profane

display of courtly culture, there was no place for the sacred. 189: The

dog–which resembles a Brussels griffon–was clearly a family pet.

(45) Ibid., p. (28)

(84) Campbell, op. Our interpretation of

Arnolfini’s clothing may draw once again on Huizinga:

(20) Ibid., p. The idea here is that mirrors tell the truth

about life–in the mirror we are nothing but this transient being (Fig.

24). (20)

(12) Ibid., p. The grimacing

face of the monster hovers just above the touching hands of the

Arnolfini, symbolically threatening their union. It

was signed: ‘Transacted on the 10th day of October in the year of

our Lord 1432 by Jan van Eyck’–language far more explicit in its

association with legal documents. (64) Yet the

dog is surely another link to death imagery. 42-49.

Seen in these terms, Van Eyck’s Double portrait climaxes in

the vision of the deceased lady. 220-21.


(78) Campbell, op. Lewis, The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval

Tradition, New York, Oxford, 1958, pp. The displays of mourning demonstrated in beautiful

form how totally powerless the affected individual is in the face of

suffering. 187.

(74) Ibid., p. 20.

[FIGURES 6-8, 10-12 OMITTED]

(32) J. 268-53, no. The reason Vanity holds a mirror in Memling’s

picture is not only that she is pleased with her own self-image, but

also that it is vain to believe beauty will last. (78)


(70) Ibid., p. cit., p. cit., pp. Giovanni di Nicolao may have fallen on hard

times, as documentary evidence concerning his business dealings

significantly diminishes in these years. In a similar way,

Rogier van der Weyden’s Braque Triptych in the Louvre is a

combination of admonition and epitaph: the skull refers to Adam and

original sin as well as the recently deceased Braque himself for whom

the work was commissioned, warning the viewer of the inevitability of

death. (32)

(54) Ibid., p. 7, 8, where, in a passage on the

mocking tone of the Ars amatoria, Lewis wrote: ‘this is a pretty

instance of the vast change which occurred during the middle ages …

But then one would have to acknowledge that it was a very consistent


In the long history of responses to the London picture, there has

been a general tendency among those who view it for the first time to

assume the lady in it is pregnant. 19, for the practice of

dressing in colours to show political allegiance.

This suggests that the purpose of the Double portrait may in part

have been to display an advantageous marriage to posterity, whether or

not the bride was still living al the time of the portrait, and whether

or not her name was included in the artist’s inscription.

It is difficult to find out about contemporary conventions and

etiquette, but one invaluable source is Les Honneurs de la Cour, written

between 1484 and 1491 by Alienor de Poitiers, the widowed Viscountess of

Veurne … 230, 232.

(3) ‘Een trauwinghe van eenen man ende vrauwe/die van Fides

ghetrauwt worden'; quoted in L. In the ritual practices of the

period, when visitors were received into the home, they were brought to

the principal chamber of the house where the new mother, the dying, or

the recently deceased were to be found lying in state on a hung bed.

(68) In his remarkably thorough study of the Double portrait, Campbell

draws attention to a contemporary source that sheds light on the

possible use of the room depicted, observing:

Costanza’s mother, Bartolomea, was the daughter of Giovanni di

Amerigo Cavalcanti, a Florentine of considerable stature. 6.

(31) G. Or was there another reason for the tone of the inscription? The

text may have been much longer, since one of the inventories

specifically states that ‘there is much writing and also this

…’ One can only imagine what else might have been gleaned from

the frame.

(10) Ibid., p. (29) Furthermore, the rites of marriage and/or

betrothal were hot as straightforward as either Panofsky or Hall claim;

they did not follow a strict, predictable or recognisable protocol. (19) Sayings by this Roman author were popular because of the

way they juxtaposed life’s pleasures with death and

this-worldliness with the transience of existence. Many

epitaphs made at this time in the Netherlands have the same fundamental

structure. Black, and above all black velvet, undoubtedly represents the

proud, somber splendor that the time loved, with its arrogant distance

from the gay wealth of color found everywhere. XVI, 1986, pp. 46; see also p. 1). The

meaning of the dog may or may not be linked to fidelity–the real point

here is that a common type of female tomb effigy in this period includes

a full-length portrait of the deceased with a small dog at her feet. 117-27.

Reprinted in M. 19.

Arnolfini came from one of the most prominent Italian families at

the Burgundian court. 55-86; M. (88)

(85) Ibid., pp. While living abroad, they probably came under the

influence of their adopted society in many ways, but certain local

customs must presumably have accompanied them from home.

Arnolfini’s choice of a fellow Lucchese as his wife suggests as

much, and it is therefore appropriate to consult Tuscan sources for many

aspects of their lives, especially in connection with marriage and

family, whereas Burgundian culture is more likely to be relevant for

their daily life together in Bruges.

Panofsky argued that the picture showed a clandestine marriage

ceremony, witnessed, he claimed, by the painter himself, shown in the

reflection in the mirror. (4)

(80) For Memling’s Triptych of Earthly Vanity and Divine

Salvation, (c. The contrast inevitably raises in our minds a question as

to how far the whole tone of medieval love poetry can be explained by

the formula, “Ovid Misunderstood”. Van Eyck’s St Catherine (Fig. 58.

(41) Huizinga, op. 143.

(27) Ibid., p. In 1452, he was still living in

Bruges, but there is little evidence in the archives of financial or

other successes. 176. 194.


(17) Campbell, op. und 16. cit., p. St Margaret, the patron saint of pregnant women, is

usually shown having emerged unscathed from the belly of a dragon,

standing over its carcass, triumphant.’ (77) Here instead she is

shown standing, or possibly kneeling, behind her attribute, with her

hands clasped in prayer–an extraordinarily rare pose for this saint

(Fig. 841-42 (entry by E.M.



English and English-influenced tomb slabs and brasses, for example,

show a married couple, both recumbent in the process of taking the

matrimonial oath, occasionally in such a manner that the head of the

lady reposes on a pillow while that of her husband does not … 251, no. 216, plate 127, for yet another

example, by a North German Master, c. 195. 12).

(72) Ibid., p. 153.

A visitor from Leipzig in 1599, Jacob Quelviz, saw the picture in

the Spanish royal collection and described it as follows: ‘an image

where a young man and a young woman are joining hands as if they are

promising future marriage: there is much writing and also this:

Promissas fallito quid enim promittere laedit/Pollicitis diues quilibet

esse potest.’ (11) The Latin quotation is from Ovid’s Ars

amatoria, and this document represents the earliest known reference to

an inscription including these lines on the now lost frame.

Nevertheless, the possibility that the couplet, as well as the frame

itself, had always been part of Van Eyck’s picture should hot be

ruled out.

(33) Campbell, op. Memory of

them was short. 6) includes a chair that

is clearly part of the bed construction, as seems also to be the case in

the London panel. The chair in the background of the Double portrait is

decorated with carved figures. She is the author of articles on Hugo van

der Goes and on artistic interchange between Italy and the North. This custom has such deep

psychological roots that it is bound neither to education nor faith. cit., p. 7). (1) No matter how certain

scholars have become that Panofsky was mistaken, however, his reading is

the one every subsequent author must address. cit., p. 26.

(40) See also Hall, op. But then a

further archival discovery was made: a document proved that Costanza was

dead by 1433, the year before Van Eyck dated his picture.

. In his words:

The most famous solemn vow of the fifteenth century, the Voeux de

Faisan, was taken in 1454 in Lille during a court festival given by

Philip the Good in preparation for the crusade. This was recently

pointed out by Campbell, but has hot as a rule been noticed by scholars.

(75) If one takes the view that the portrait of Signora Arnolfini is

posthumous, then the lit candle as opposed to the burned-out one refers

to the couple, the lit candle on the side of the living, the

extinguished one on the side of the deceased. While there is no

trace of Giovanni di Arrigo in the Bruges archives until 1435, (23)

Giovanni di Nicolao had lived in Bruges since 1419 or earlier, and would

have had every opportunity in become acquainted with Jan van Eyck well

before 1434. As Hall reminds his readers:

An inventory from 1794 offers little in terms of the subject of the

picture, but reiterates a common misconception from Vasari concerning

the painter’s technical originality: ‘one vara high by three

quarters of a vara wide, a man and a woman holding hands, Juan de

Encinas, inventor of off painting, 6000 reals.’ (13) During the

Peninsular War, Van Eyck’s painting was transferred to England,

before entering the collection of the National Gallery in 1842. (83) This seems to suggest that the

painter was attesting to the truth of the likeness.

(36) Ibid., p. A

later copy, now in Budapest, shows them as bride and groom. In

describing the beau ideal of manhood, many medieval authors celebrate a

hybrid of secular and chivalric qualities. 123.

(62) Hall, op. The higher the rank the more heroic the display of pain. This was the last public spectacle associated with the deceased.

Also public were the signs of mourning. Signora

Arnolfini wears vivid green wool with the whitest white ermine. There exists a

whole dimension of courtly, secular life that has been left out of much

of the literature on early Netherlandish art, and that may inform the

meanings of all sorts of pictures.

(82) Campbell, op. On another level,

‘Johannes van Eyck fuit hic’ may be an assertion of the

veracity of his painted representation, like his inscription on the Leal Souvenir (Loyal Remembrance) portrait in London (Fig. The dominant

account has been that of Erwin Panofsky, who published his first

treatment of the picture as long ago as 1934. These borrowings

include an altarpiece wing panel in the Prado by a follower of Campin,

and the Kansas City Holy Family by Petrus Christus (Fig. Wilson, seminar lecture, Courtauld Institute of Art, Spring

1992, instancing among other works the Washington Annunciation.

(53) Campbell op. If it was

‘called’ something, then there was likely in be an inscription

on the frame; assigning titles was not common in this period and seem

most likely in have been derived from words inscribed by the painter


Double portraits (or images of an idealised couple) with a pair of

cadaverous counterparts on the reverse began to appear in the mid 1450s.

Essentially, these were an admonition to lead a virtuous life. Levey (ed.), The Burlington Magazine: A Centenary

Anthologyy, New Haven and London, 2003, pp. 5)

again comes to our aid here, since she betrays the same bulge around the

belly. (81)

(73) Huizinga, op. cit., p. (35) As Charles de la Ronciere

has observed: ‘But the moment one left the private realm to be seen

in the outside world, the gamurra [informal dress] ceased to be

appropriate. Van Mander’s interpretation was based on the assumption that

the couple’s right hands were clasped (since this was required in a

marriage ceremony) and that a personification of Faith joined them

together. cit., pp. 205, note 23: ‘Aloisius-Kolleg, Bad Godesburg:

formerly on an oak panel, 88 x 55 cm [almost the same size] …

Attributed by Buchner to the Meister der Aachener Schrankturen, it was

discovered beneath a painting of the 1520s representing a Virgin and

Child with Heinrich Krain. 183.

(75) Campbell, op. 187.

The Arnolfini of Lucca, who spent their adult lives al the court of

Burgundy, would have been very well aware of all this. Klapisch-Zuber, Women, Family, and

Ritual in Renaissance Italy, translated by L. 104.

(71) Ibid., p. cit., p. 65.

Individual members of prominent fifteenth-century Tuscan families

often kept family histories known as Ricordanze (memoirs). Court

mourning during Burgundian times can only be understood if viewed in

relation to elegy. This

entry demonstrates the way in which a text written on a frame can

actually increase confusion regarding a work’s subject-matter:

‘a picture on panel with two doors that close with its wooden frame

gilded with unburnished gold, some verses from Ovid written on the frame

of the picture, which is of a pregnant German woman dressed in green

giving her hand to a youth and it appears that they are getting married

by night and the verses declare how they are deceiving each other and

the doors are of wood painted with marbling, valued at 16

doubloons.’ (12)

(22) Campbell, op. cit., p.87.

(87) Panofsky, op. (38) The enormous train on the

lady’s dress resembles what a royal personage, such as Van

Eyck’s St Catherine of Alexandria (who according to legend was a

princess, and is portrayed as one) in the right wing or the Dresden

Triptych (Fig. 208.

(24) For a succinct account of the Trenta family’s patronage

of Jacopo delta Quercia in Lucca, see J. In every way he

seemed distressed and inconsolable.’ (44)

(11) Campbell, op. 9). cit., pp.



(15) Ibid, p. 174.

(61) E. 26), (82) which

was itself most likely a posthumous memento or secular epitaph, too. (55) One striking example of a living sitter

juxtaposed with a corpse is a diptych painted by the Basel Master of

1487, in which a young man in the left wing is paired with a decayed

female cadaver in the right (Fig. Van

Eyck’s extant single-panel portraits are all decorated on the

reverse, whereas the central panels of his surviving triptychs are not.

Furthermore, Angelica Dulberg has noted that quotations from Ovid appear

frequently on portraits dating from the fifteenth and sixteenth

centuries. As Campbell further notes: ‘Bare wooden boards such as these

are not often found in representations of interiors, where floors are

usually tiled or inlaid with semi-precious stones.’ (71) The carpet

beside the bed indicates a chamber decorated for Costanza’s lying

in; its bare floor indicates a measure of austerity appropriate to her


I believe Lorne Campbell is correct that this is Giovanni di

Nicolao Arnolfini. 96-132, and E. 77, no. 342-45.

The Arnolfini have dressed up for this occasion, as sitters were

wont to do when having their portraits painted. cit., p. Or, better put, these two were in a very

special way the colors of love, but the other colors could also serve in

the symbolism of love. (30)

Finally, it seems worth noting that in the majority of images of

weddings of this period, the bride’s hair is worn long, in the

manner of a virgin, (31) not as the woman wears it in Van Eyck’s

Double portrait. II, 1976 pp. cit., p.45. cit. As in the Virgin of Chancellor Rolin (Fig. Lewis, ‘could be recommended seriously by the courtly

tradition … 194.

(13) A vara measures 84 cm; Campbell, op. There are other double

portraits which were designed more as emblems of loss than of marriage:

one such is a half length portrait of Ladislaus v (1440-57), King of

Hungary and Bohemia, and Magdalena, daughter of Charles VII of France. Hall, The Arnolfini Betrothal: Medical Marriage

and the Enigma of Van Eyck’s Double Portrait, Berkeley, Los

Angeles, London, 1994.

Panofsky does not compare the tomb brass to the painting by Van

Eyck, despite the clear formal relationship. Koster is a graduate of the Courtauld Institute and of

Columbia University, New York. 25).

(30) Ibid., p. 25)? And why only

one? There are several religious paintings of the period with candles

seemingly unnecessarily lit; pictures with a lit candle in the daytime

are also often those in which a lying in chamber is depicted, such as

the Virgin and Child now attributed to Jaques Daret in the National

Gallery, or countless scenes of the Nativity with Joseph holding a lit


A few key aspects of the earlier stages of work revealed by

infrared reflectography support the view that Van Eyck was working to

accentuate the death of Costanza, suggesting that she either died in the

process of the painting’s creation or that–determined to create a

work of great significance and complexity–he elaborated his message in

the course of its execution, necessitating changes to the programme. Not that the

custom of taking a spontaneous vow during an emergency or moment of

strong emotion had lost any of its power. 114; Campbell, op. There were unlimited possibilities

for a splendid exaggeration of sorrow, the counterpart of the hyperbolic expressions of joy during the grandiose court festivities … (84) The high backed chair with its figure

of a praying St Margaret was also not underdrawn. cit.

(39) Huizinga, op. In a recent lecture on titles (Courtauld

Institute, 19 May 2003), David Ekserdjian made the pertinent observation

that as a rule the less an inventory-taker knew, the more verbose the

description tended to be.

(2) There have certainly been challenges, but they had little

impact on the non-specialist readership. Is he shown taking a marriage or betrothal

oath, as Panofsky, Hall and others would have it, or is he merely

greeting the two gentlemen who enter the room, as Campbell contends?

This brings us back to the grain of truth on which Panofsky based his

interpretation. 220-21, 225, 230, 279.

… An important woman, a benefactress for her kin, for

example, would eventually be known under her own name and brought to

people’s attention; but the family chronicler or the amateur

genealogist would feel obliged to explain why, since the process fit so

poorly within their definition of kinship … Other versions of the Eyckian

original feature similarly overt references to death. Panofsky, ‘Jan Van Eyck’s Arnolfini

Portrait’, Burlington Magazine, vol. 166-67, figs.


(83) Hall op. In the case of the Double

portrait, the inventories eventually stopped mentioning the names of the

persons depicted–either because the sitters had passed out of memory

and their inscribed names were not considered worth mentioning, or

because there was no inscription by the time a given inventory was made.

Perhaps the names were cleverly encoded, as on Van Eyck’s Portrait

of Jan de Leeuw, in which the date is represented in the form of a

chronogram (Fig. But surely the portrayal of a man and woman

clasping hands in such a room signifies something more.

(81) For Rogier van der Weyden’s, Triptych of Jean Braque (c.

1452-53), see Dirk de Vos, Rogier van der Weyden: The Complete Works,

Antwerp, 1999, pp. (3) In 1604, Karel van

Mander, sometimes called the Vasari of the North, perpetuated the

misunderstanding in his own commentary, having drawn from Van

Vaernewijck. He had no children except two illegitimate ones–his money

went to Jeanne Cenami and then to the family in Lucca.

(35) Duby, op. Those who know Van Eyck’s whole

oeuvre well tend to believe otherwise–that it was simply the fashion to

wear this style of clothing and that her attire should hot preclude her

from being seen as a virgin bride. cit., p. (46)


If we first of all consider various details in the picture that

have particularly attracted the attention of scholars, as well as some

that have been previously overlooked, we find they make far more sense

within the context of a posthumous portrait of Costanza and her living


(29) Klapisch-Zuber, op. 198.

(56) E. 3).

(60) For a thorough study of these tombs, sec Cohen, op. cit., p. 25). 75-77; Panofsky, op. 154.

Petrus Christus’s Holy Family (Fig. 198.

(49) Ibid., p. 17). 194,

note 178, p. cit., pp. 1457, Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale Albert 1er, MS 9092,

fol. (61)

The colours worn by the Arnolfini are likely to carry

significance–something hitherto ignored by scholarship. 326, and p. Reporting

that they are shown at the moment of their wedding, he finds this

treatment both curious and provincial:

In art of the period, mirrors like that of the Arnolfini are also

sometimes identified as mirrors of death–a further element in the

repertoire of memento mori. The dowry was 800 florins or more,

at the discretion of her grandfather, since her father was dead; this

was art average amount for someone at her level of society, even on the

small side if it was only 800; see C. (45) Yet the commemoration

of women–dead or alive–was rare, and may contribute to our confusion

regarding the true purpose of this image.

In mid-fifteenth-century Florence, the husband typically spent

about a third to two-thirds of the dowry on clothes for the new wife and

furnishings–often well above the cost of the trousseau. 4.


‘The very same conduct which Ovid ironically recommends’,

wrote C.S. Unfortunately,

there is as yet no further information on the sitter’s identity to

be gained from the Berlin picture’s provenance or history. (42) One’s marriage was an

aspect of life especially put on display al the moment of death, as

either–in Dominique Bathelemy’s words–a ‘revelation of

life’s most essential relationship at a time when falsehood was out

of the question, or a final opportunity to shape an image of the

ideal.’ (43) A certain Baldwin II, a count who died in 1169, may

have had many extramarital lovers, yet ‘nevertheless, he suffered

greatly when his legitimate wife … 1470-80 by an anonymous Ulm

painter (Figs. cit., p. (54) This dependence is well known, but it

has not been mentioned in this context that the picture in question has

corpses painted on the reverse (Fig. 84.

It was only a few steps from there to the marriage theory set forth

by Panofsky, who judged the misunderstandings to be the result of poor

Latin, arguing that these earlier sources intended to say the couple was

married per fidem, a legal term indicating a private marriage.

‘According to canon law’, Panofsky wrote, ‘marriage was

concluded by taking an oath, and this oath (fides) implied two actions:

that of joining hands (fides manualis) and, on the part of the groom,

that of raising his forearm (fides levata, a gesture still retained by

out legal procedure).’ (5) His learned coinage of the phrase fides

levata–a convincing but altogether fictional Latin term (6)–would

contribute to the overwhelming success of Panofsky’s account.

(21) C.S. Pinpointing

which Arnolfini has proved to be more of a challenge. cit., p. It will be necessary

therefore to rehearse Panofsky’s arguments, as well as those of

some of his critics. (53) A painting on loan to Bonn from Bad

Godesberg of 1470 was very closely modelled on the London panel–it

shows a man and woman holding hands in an interior with a mirror on the

wall behind them (Fig. cit., p. In the Seven Sacraments Altarpiece by Rogier van der

Weyden and his workshop, the sacrament of marriage is represented by a

woman taking her marriage vows, with long hair similar to that found in

images of the Virgin Mary (Fig. See, for example, L. Perhaps the eight-sided mirror was

given ten sides so that the hopeful, post-mortem scenes of the Harrowing

of Hell and the Resurrection could be added? The smaller mirror also

made room for the signature. 187, who adds: ‘Her mother Isabel

de Sousa had been Lady in Waiting to Isabella of Portugal, Duchess of

Burgundy, and Alienor had resided with her mother at the Burgundian


Klapisch-Zuber explained the limited role of women within family

heritage during this period:


(1) E. 61 above, p. 10. 195.

(‘See that you promise: what harm is there in promises? In

promises anyone can be rich’) Ibid., p, 176.

(43) Ibid., p. XLIV,

1993, pp. At such times the chests were opened and the richest

fabrics brought out, for the clothing worn in public was a matter of

individual and social distinction.’ (36) The exhibition of

one’s wife as if putting a treasure on display was considered

proper; (37) and, indeed, this is part of what Van Eyck’s painting


(37) Ibid., p. (80) Here we find a

neat summary of some of the major themes at work in Van Eyck’s

Double portrait. Benjamin,

‘Disguised Symbolism Exposed and the History of Early Netherlandish

Painting’, Studies in Iconography, vol. I, p. (66)

Scale discrepancies between the chandelier, the mirror, and even

the figures, in relation to the space they inhabit (mistakes on the part

of this particular artist seem inconceivable), along with the absence of

a fireplace, make it impossible to see the picture as the portrait of a

room that really existed. Arguably, only a masterful scholar could have convinced so

many people to accept such an unlikely scenario. On some occasions the vows

are addressed to the ‘much beloved’ who is but a pale remnant

of herself. On 26 February 1433,

Bartolomea writes from Lucca to Lorenzo de’Medici to congratulate

them on the birth of their son, and in the course of a discussion of her

children, she mentions that her daughter Costanza is no longer alive:

‘solamente ne viveno due, Paulo e Johi. Moreover, I agree with him that this is no picture of

a betrothal ceremony, nor indeed of a wedding. 122.

(67) Campbell, op. cit., p. 195. It

finally looked as if Campbell had hit upon the perfect match. cit. in n. 20). (59) The most common inscription on such tombs is a form of:

‘I was like you, and you will be like me.’ (60)

The range of responses to Jan van Eyck’s Double portrait in

the National Gallery is an indication of the painter’s stupendous achievement (Fig. 8). Most extant portraits by Jan van Eyck include

some kind of identifying inscription on the frame, often featuring the

sitter’s name, painted illusionistically as if chiselled into stone

or carved into wood (Fig.

(47) Lewis, op. Bendel, Tobias

Stimmer: Leben and Werke, Zurich and Berlin, 1940, pp. 10, fig. In that society, one did

not wear clothing such as this at home. But whether literally pregnant or not, the fashion for

accentuating the womb itself relates to women’s duty to bear

children and to a physique that makes this possible.

(69) Campbell, op. When aiming for this ideal,

goodness does not mean aestheticism, nor does knighthood mean adultery.

(47) As Lewis wrote: ‘The Ovidian tradition, operated upon by the

medieval taste for humorous blasphemy, is apparently quite sufficient to

produce a love religion, and even in a sense a Christianized love

religion, without any aid from the new seriousness of romantic

passion.’ (48) In short, ‘Love is, in saeculo, what God is, in

eternity.’ (49)

A more menacing indication of the painting’s true subject may

be round below the mirror, on the wooden bench (Fig. 21)–the owner of the Double portrait–is a characteristic

example, such dogs served to express ‘the mutual affection of

husband and wife in a happy marriage.’ (65) A case in point is the

Count and Countess of Henneberg Tomb by Peter Vischer (Fig. 182-84.

(88) During the 1430s. Beginning at the

bottom and moving clockwise, we have the Agony in the Garden, the Arrest

of Christ, Christ before Pilate, the Flagellation, Christ Carrying the

Cross, the Crucifixion, the Descent from the Cross, the Entombment, the

Harrowing of Hell and the Resurrection. In 1416,

Bartolomea’s sister was married to Lorenzo de’Medici, the

brother of Cosimo il Vecchio. (9)

The brass chandelier has long been considered particularly

mysterious. the doors are of wood painted with

marbling.” It is likely that a gilded frame, as well as shutters

painted to simulate marble, belonged in the work from the beginning,

since such features are entirely characteristic of panels painted by Jan

van Eyck (see Figs. 6). 201.

Changes to the underdrawing of Arnolfinis raised right hand (Fig.

27) have been interpreted as being intended to improve the plasticity of

the hand, with out affecting the meaning or significance of the oath

swearing gestured. In contrast

to these images, manuscript illuminations by Loyset Liedet that depend

on Van Fyek’s portrait–both in terms of their composition and

their details, are secular. 178, figs. (24) They had been

betrothed on 23 January 1426, when Costanza was thirteen, (25) which

means she would have been twenty one when the painting was executed. (14)

(58) K. Her

underdress is blue, and is also trimmed with white fur. 5-28; L. Cochraine, Chicago, 1985,

pp. 7-8.

Like birth and marriage, death had its own set of rules. 25), concerning which more must have been

written than about almost any other mirror in the history of art, has

ten roundels depicting the Passion of Christ–or so we are often told.

To be more precise, there are eight scenes of the Passion plus two

scenes showing Christ’s life after his death. cit., p. cit., p. 198, was the first to publish an

opinion on the Ovid inscription, and believes it was added later, partly

because it is not mentioned in any of the earlier descriptions of the

picture, Hall did not know the lines of Ovid, only that the protagonists

were said to be ‘deceiving each other’ He believed that a

marbled frame sounded right for Van Eyck, but that the satirical nature

of the inscription did not seem appropriate; see respectively Hall, op.

cit., p. His reading was to play

the leading role for more than hall a century, so compelling was his

erudition and so elegant his prose. cit., p. 192.

Margaret L. 198.

(44) Ibid., p. 176.

(26) ‘Only two are living, Paulo and Johi. Dulberg, privatportrats: Geschichte und Ikonologie

einer Gattung im 15. (40) But 1434 was the time of his

father, and in paintings by Jan van Eyck, or indeed any paintings from

around that date, one is bard pressed to find other examples of men

dressed with such extreme sobriety. In ancient funerary

monuments and medieval tomb effigies, of which the tomb of Margaret of

Austria (Fig. All of these unusual

features follow a clear logic when the painting is viewed in light of

the hypothesis that this is a painting in memory of Costanza Arnolfini

after her death.

Important information concerning the picture may be gleaned from

inventories. They show what the depicted person wishes he could see

tangibly before him, but they also reveal the fact that it is only an


(86) Hall, op. 1700 referred to above

describes ‘its wooden frame gilded with unburnished gold’,

which corresponds in the way Van Eyck also decorated his supposed

Self-portrait (Fig. First cited in Campbell, op. (17) The inventory of c. (79) In a division that echoes

that of the candles, the scenes of Christ living are on the

left–Giovanni di Nicolao’s side–and the scenes of his death and

resurrection are on the right–Costanza’s domain.

On the arm is a carving of a monster with a grimacing human face,

lion’s ears and hoofs instead of hands: he wears a hat and a bib and is seated back to back with what is either a carved lion or another,

similar monster. Scholars

have debated whether it is a portrait laden with Christian symbolism or

something devoid of symbolism altogether, but rarely, if ever, have

interpretations taken into account the courtly context of Bruges in

1434. (41)

Alienor de Poitiers observes that:

Given that Costanza Arnolfini died childless around the age of

twenty, it is not unreasonable to wonder whether she did not die in

childbirth. cit. Due to its persuasiveness

and prestige, then, nearly all subsequent scholars, and the informed

public at large, still follow Panofsky and refer to the picture as the

Arnolfini wedding. The fact that the widow was on occasion required to leave

her clothes behind in the event of remarriage is often mentioned in

wills. 230: ‘Hochzeitsbildnis …

Vorderseite: Brautpaar. cit., p. (63) Although it is often described as an altarpiece, this

painting is far more likely to have served as an epitaph–a potential

function of this and other pictures by Van Eyck that needs further

study. Whether or not he will agree with my interpretation,

it was his admirable treatment of the picture which provided the primary

sources for this article.

(28) Hall, op. A small double-sided triptych by Memling includes a skull on one

panel, another panel with the figure of Death, and a third with an image

of Vanity holding a mirror, a small dog at her feet. a noblewoman below the rank of countess normally placed only

one carpet in front of her bed when she was giving birth; only a lady of

the highest rank was permitted to carpet the entire floor of her lying

in chamber. Alberti was the first to recommend this practice.

Another act of remembrance was the commissioning of detailed, lifelike,

and convincing portraits of their ancestors. Seidel, ‘Jan van Eyck’s Arnolfini

Portrait: Business as Usual?’, Critical Inquiry, vol. Huizinga, The Autumn of the Middle Ages, Chicago, 1996, pp.


(57) Dulberg, op. They were careful to leave accurate information about

themselves and their children: age, name of godfather, hour and day of

birth, and so on. cit., p. (52)

(18) See A. A woman’s

wedding clothes were frequently the property of her husband, sometimes

provided to make a show of her as his property; they were well adorned,

sometimes with family jewels that were not always given to her

permanently. 188, ‘Often described somewhat inaccurately as

a Passion cycle, the ten miniscule medallions embellishing the frame

include as well the Harrowing of Hell and the Resurrection, and thus the

imagery really epitomizes the central Christian mystery of Christ’s

triumph over sin and death’. (86) To my eye, however, his gesture seems–in the

final solution–to be more directed to his wife than to the viewer. 58, figs. (69)

(59) Dulberg, op. See also Hall, op. 4, 5.

(63) Panofsky, op. The

knightly vow as cultural form, however, as a custom elevated to an

embellishment of life, reaches its last phase in the splendid

extravagances of the Burgundian court … Most of the Italians who came to live and work in

Bruges and other important trading cities in the north were of the

merchant class, and some of them–like the Arnolfini–possessed

significant wealth. cit., p. 103.

(38) Klapisch-Zuber, op. Deschamps says of a group of suitors: ‘Some

dress themselves for her in green/the other blue, another in

white./Another in vermillion like blood,/And he who desires her

most/Because of his great sorrow dresses in black.’ But green was

especially the color of young hopeful Minne: “You will have to

dress in green/It is the livery of those in love.’ (39)

(6) As pointed out in Bedaux, op. 2, 3, 4, 5, 13). What it still reveals of

all this is not much more than a beautiful courtly form. The mystery has only grown with the passing

centuries. cit., p. 127.

What of the bed, which Campbell reads simply as relatively

expensive furniture? (67) Beds depicted in rooms of state, birth scenes,

and even Virgin and Child images may in some cases have had a neutral

function–the expression of the social standing of the inhabitants of

the house in question. 82.

In other respects the basic meaning of fides remained unchanged: to

‘faithfulness,’ ‘honesty,’ and ‘promise’,

which are among the primary connotations of the word, Roman law had

added the idea of an honest keeping of a promise or the obligations

consequent to an agreement–essentially what Augustine meant when he

termed fides one of three ‘goods’ of Christian marriage.

Fides, in a somewhat broader medieval usage, meant not only a solemn

promise to do something, but–by extension–an oath associated with such

a promise or agreement. Corpses are

depicted on the reverse of a panel of c. The family chroniclers

keep the memory, of an alliance with a certain lineage, but forget, a

few generations after the marriage, the given name of the woman on whom

the alliance was built. While

the possibility has recently been rejected out of hand, I would like to

suggest that Van Eyck himself inscribed the frame in this way, following

his usual practice. cit., p. Others take cautiously

conditioned vows that testify both to serious intent and to

self-satisfaction with a beautiful pretense. Jahrbundert, Berlin, 1990, plates 61, 186,


An observant viewer of the Double portrait will discern the remains

of a burnt-out candle in the front right sconce. Her inventory from around 1558 includes the

following: ‘a large panel, with two doors with which it closes, and

in it a man and a woman who take each other’s hands, with a mirror

in which the said man and woman are shown, and on the doors the arms of

Don Diego de Guevara; done by Juanes de Hec, in the year 1434.’

(10) The panel then passed to the King of Spain, who absorbed Mary of

Hungary’s collection on her death.

(4) Ibid., op. Turner (ed.), The Dictionary of

Art, 34 vols., London, 1996, vol. Ladislaus

died suddenly, on 23 November 1457, just before their wedding.

(64) Hall, op. (73) ‘Next to mourning’, Huizinga

writes, ‘confinement during childbirth offered ample opportunities

for serious pomp and hierarchical distinctions of ostentation.’


(16) Hall, op. 1 above, p. She is

currently completing a monograph on the Portinari Altarpiece.

In signing his name just above the mirror, the artist may have

included himself in this symbolic constellation, as part of the play of

presence and absence operating throughout the picture. cit., figs. The documentary evidence from that date, which

is relatively substantial, gives no indication that he had previously

been married. cit., p. cit., p. 117.

We learn from Quelviz around 1600 that ‘there was much writing

and also this’–the couplet from Ovid’s Ars amatoria. (2)

(79) Ibid., p. (18) Moreover, the undecorated reverse of the Arnolfini panel

suggests that it was created as the centrepiece of a triptych. (16) However, Hall fails to mention that

the painter’s name is translated into the vernacular in some

inventories as well (‘done by Juanes de Hec, in the year

1434′; ‘Juan de Encinas, inventor of oil painting’),

despite his signature’s prominent position in the middle of the

painting itself (‘Johannes de Eyck fuit hic 1434′).

Furthermore, the 1516 inventory reads: ‘a large picture which is

called Hernoul le Fin with his wife in a chamber’. These are

the correct dimensions, so it would seem likely the compiler of the

inventory had the picture before him.

(68) Hall. cit., pp. (7) The inventory of Margaret of Austria’s collection at

Malines, taken in her presence, dates from 17 July 1516, and records

‘a large picture which is called Hernoul le Fin with his wife in a

chamber, which was given to Madame by Don Diego, whose arms are on the

cover of the said picture; done by the painter Johannes.’ (8)

Another inventory of the same collection, made between 9 July 1523 and

17 April 1524, includes this entry: ‘another very exquisite

picture, which closes with two shutters, where there are painted a man

and a woman, standing, touching hands, done by the hand of Johannes, the

arms and device of the late Don Diego on the said two shutters, the name

of the personage being Arnoult Fin.’ This ‘Don Diego’ is

Don Diego de Guevara, a Spanish nobleman who grew up and lived in the

Low Countries; he died in 1520. (21) Perhaps this is

equally true of the mysterious Ovidian text that used to decorate the

frame. Her husband, on

the other hand, wears sombre tones of deep purple and black. in n. It is completely orchestrated around

that basic idea, from the difference in the treatment of light–she is

bathed in a kind of ethereal whiteness, while he stands in comparative

shadow–to the inventory of objects that surround the two.

(48) Ibid., p. In the rite of baptism, a pair of

matrons have their hair pinned up, under a veil, in much the same

fashion as Signora Arnolfini (Fig. 3.

(52) Ibid., p. cit., p. 201.

The convex mirror (Fig. See

Campbell, op. The name ‘Hernoul le Fin’, mentioned in Margaret

of Austria’s inventory, depended either on an inscription or on

documentation from Don Diego. Until very

recently, it had been universally assumed, following Weale in 1861, that

the couple were Giovanni di Arrigo Arnolfini and his wife Jeanne Cenami.

This Arnolfini was the most prominent member of an important Lucchese

family resident in Bruges in the fifteenth century, but–as Lorne Camp

bell has now proved–the portrait cannot be of Giovanni di Arrigo, since

he only married in 1447, thirteen years after it was painted and six

years after Jan van Eyck’s death. 13). 18). 176. Why light a candle in the daytime (Fig. 42.

An inventory from about 1700 of paintings belonging to King Charles II of Spain gives the only other reference to the inscription. cat.,

Stedelijke Museum, Bruges, 1994, pp.112 15, no. To quote

Campbell once more:

(34) C. 186-87.

The present article is dedicated, most appropriately, to my husband

Joseph Koerner, whom I married the day after I finished this article.

(7) The following inventory, excerpts are all taken from the

painstakingly researched catalogue entry in Campbell, op. cit., p. 118-19.

(76) Hall, op. One part historical research, one

part manifesto, this was the essay in which Panofsky launched his

influential but misleading concept of ‘disguised symbolism’

(whereby an ordinary object painted in a naturalistic way functions as

the sign for an idea that–because the symbolism is unknown to modern

viewers is hidden). 61 above,

figs. died in childbirth. Edwin Hall claims that the

different vernacular spellings of the surname demonstrate that the

name’s appearance in the inventories depends ultimately on

oral–rather than written–history (as we have seen, the 1523-24

inventory calls him ‘Arnoult Fin’ and that of 1516

‘Hernoul le Fin’). cit., p. 53, 56; see also p. Paulo si trova in Avignone … With the addition of his signature, Panofsky

concluded, Jan van Eyck endowed his image with the power of a legal

document. In

1568, Marcus van Vaernewyck described the double portrait as ‘a

very small panel’ in which was painted ‘a marriage of a man

and a woman who are married by Faith’. 19). It is by way of this revisionist history that I

arrived at what I will present here: a new and simple solution to the

function and meaning of the work.

(50) Huizinsga, op. Rather than the more typical lions found

in Christus’s image, it is adorned with a figure of a very

different sort. The term fides does indeed exist in the context or

oath-taking ceremonies. Furs were a common wedding gift from the husband, and were

subsequently worn on important occasions. Rather than being a sign of

fidelity, perhaps the dog’s role is to accompany the dead in

eternity, like the angels that also sometimes appear with tomb effigies

(for instance, on the tomb of Philip the Bold at the Chartreuse de

Champmol). 200.


The frame with the Ovidian inscription was lost at some time

between 1700 and 1842. 1435), see Dirk de Vos, Hans Memling, exh. (85)

In other words, the oath gesture Arnolfini makes may be a reference

to an oath already taken, or perhaps an oath that serves to renew a

promise made at some point in the past.

If we turn to the rich cultural context evoked by Johan Huizinga,

we find that in this period the taking of an oath could have more than

just legal connotations. The

contrast between the peak of one’s physical self (at a time such as

marriage) and the deterioration of one’s body after death

contributed to this message. For Margaret of Austria’s tomb,

see Cohen, op. XVI, pp. (33) This was Jan van Eyck’s typical

practice: he built spaces that–although entirely believable–were in

fact imaginary. However, it seems unlikely that either of them ever saw the

work. 104.

(46) Klapisch Zuber, op. (57) These portraits are linked visually

and symbolically to tombs representing the dead in the early stages of

decomposition, (58) so-called transi tombs, which predate the Double

portrait by a few decades and continued to be common for centuries to

come. There may also be a link to later

double portraits with a dog at the foot of the woman, such as Tobias

Stammer’s full-length individual panels of Pannerherr Jacob

Schwytzer von Zurich and Elizabeth Lochmann of 1564, in the Offentliche

Kunstsammlung, Basel (for an illustration, sec M. ‘The strict cultivation of the beautiful life in the form of

a heroic ideal is the characteristic that ties French knightly culture

after the twelfth century to the Renaissance.’ (51) The forms of

life assumed by the nobility were avidly imitated by those members of

the third estate who could afford to do so. in n. 10-11). The corpse

was moved from the private bedchamber to the tomb in a public procession

not unlike that at a wedding, with the family marching in hierarchical

order. No

underdrawing can be found for the dog or the chandelier. 55.

(65) Hall, op. cit., p. Krain was a canon of St Gereon at Cologne.

The painting of two corpses on the reverse was done at the same time as

the double portrait, which is known only from photographs of the back of

the paint layer, taken when the Virgin was removed from its

support.’ See also Buchner, op. 2.

Panofsky’s contention that Van Eyck literally painted a

marriage certificate was rooted in two early accounts of the picture. This might explain why the floor is decorated in the way it

is. Rather than

relying on memory or hearsay, the head of the family might cite

notarised contracts, account books, and affidavits as supporting

evidence. cit., pp. In my view, what is depicted is

a reference to the couple’s already established union rather than a

ceremony of betrothal or marriage.

It is remarkable that black and violet are more popular for

clothing than green and blue, while yellow and brown are almost entirely

missing. 202.



In his book on tomb sculpture, none other than Panofsky discussed

an English tomb brass depicting a married couple (Fig. Johanni is in Lucca.’ Florence,

Archivio di Stato, Mediceo avanti il principato, xx/40; letter dated

Lucca 26 February 1432/33. The mirror was

larger and originally octagonal. Paulo is in Avignon. It

may be significant that a dog appears in many effigies au vif–as in

life–but not in effigies en transi. Cohen, Metamorphosis of a Death Symbol the Transi Tomb in

the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Berkeley, 1973, p. LXIV (March 1934), pp. This essay was also the popular test case of

Panofsky’s ambitious method of ‘iconology’ that was to

dominate the discipline until recent times. 23). 137, note 9, and p. 176.

Netherlandish images of this period depicting hung beds in use

typically show a birth, as in the Birth of St John the Baptist from the

Turin-Milan Hours (Fig. 55, for a

discussion of pleurants.

The first two inventories do, however, state the identity of the

man depicted. Johanni e a lucha …’

(26) Reaching what appeared to be another impasse, Campbell finally

concluded that: ‘If Hernoul le Fin is rightly interpreted as

Arnolfini, then van Eyck’s couple may be tentatively identified as

Giovanni di Nicolao Arnolfini and his putative second wife.’ (27)

However, Panofsky does link an epitaph in Tournai Cathedral of

about 1438 (Fig. cit., p. 4) and notes ‘some verses from Ovid written on

the frame of the picture … 16), and–I would

argue–the Double portrait, here too the artist allows us to behold the

earthly presence of a living individual together with an apparition that

appears to that individual in his mind’s eye, as if were. 41.

The oath depicted in Van Eyck’s painting therefore need not

have had either a religious inspiration or a legal cause. 190.

I would also like to acknowledge Lorne Campbell whose conscientious

and thorough scholarship has always been an inspiration to me, and whose

pioneering research in this particular case provided the groundwork for

the present study. There is a second portrait by Jan van Eyck, in Berlin,

of the man represented in the London Double portrait. It is thanks to this family connection

that we learn of the fate of her daughter. Huizinga

had a great deal to say about the colour symbolism of clothing in his

Autumn of the Middle Ages, not least in an eloquent passage relevant to

the colours worn by Arnolfini and his wife:

(14) Ibid., p. I do not believe it is

sufficient to call the single lit candle ‘nothing more than good

bourgeois thriftiness.’ (76)


The Double portrait passed by descent to Mary of Hungary, who had

moved to Spain in 1556. Campbell identifies the man as

Giovanni di Nicolao Amoltini, the elder of the two Giovanni Arnoltinis

living in Bruges during Van Eyck’s lifetime. This picture seems both too alien to grasp and at the same

time entirely straightforward–encouraging scholars of every variety to

register their own different interpretations in print. As

Panofsky says, ‘the husband gingerly holds the lady’s right

hand.’ (87) In the underdrawing, Arnolfini had a better grip; now

it slips through his fingers, as perhaps did Costanza herself. 191. These were often, if not always, made with the original to

hand. (72) Similarly, Huizinga

reports that two large candles in silver holders burned continuously in

the lying in room of Isabella of Bourbon, where the shutters were kept

closed for fourteen days. Philip the Good, after

having passed the days of his youth, always wore black and had his

entourage and horses in the same color. 22), or a death, as in the Office of the Dead

miniature in the Spinola Hours (Fig. cit., pp. 47.

A consistent focal point of much of the literature on the work is

the man’s raised hand. Ruickseite: Gestalt des Todes.’

(66) See Cohen, op. op. (70)

(25) Campbell, op. cit., plates 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, for several examples of marriage

scenes depicting brides with long hair.

However, Hall’s conclusion that the two are shown at their

betrothal ceremony should be questioned for several reasons.

Klapisch-Zuber has shown that in Tuscan families in this period, the

betrothal process usually did not include the bride-to-be but only the

men of the family. Campbell, National Gallery

Catalogues: The Fifteenth Century Netherlandish Schools, London, 1998,

p. cit., p. In fact, the hands of

husband and wife were often linked in English funerary monuments. 126; see also

Hall op. 14) with Van Eyck’s Virgin of Canon van der Paele

(Fig. Duby (ed.), A History of Private Life: II Revelations of

the Medieval World, Cambridge, MA, and London, 1988, p. (15) Presumably a discerning former owner

would have left any inscription on the frame, especially one painted by

a master of Van Eyck’s prestige

Richest Countries in the World

Michael L. Jenkins

Michael L. Jenkins

Hi my name is Michael L. Jenkins and I am a sport betting enthusiast. I write articles and review products and services related to Sports Betting Systems and Sports Book's. Please see my blog at Sport Betting Store for more great information on sports betting.
Michael L. Jenkins

Besides that, Bermuda has a highly-developed international business economy, and it is a financial exporter of financial services, primarily insurance, investment funds, and special purpose vehicles.

Kuwait has the world’s fifth largest oil reserves. One more thing, due to its limited natural resources, Liechtenstein is one of the few countries in the world with more registered companies than citizens; thus, it develops a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy.

A general view shows Vaduz Castle in Liechtenstein’s capital Vaduz

Luxembourg, which is the world’s the eighth richest city also has the higher salaries. Luxembourg; GDP per capita $81,100

3. One more thing, petroleum and petroleum products now reach nearly 95 per cent of Kuwait’s export revenues, and 80% of government income.

9. Investment Property And The Wealth Of Nations

Qatar is an oil- and gas-rich country with world’s third largest gas reserves. It is also the smallest German-speaking country. Norway; GDP per capita $55,200

Norway occupies the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Bermuda; per capita GDP $69,900

A night view of Kuwait City

4. Liechtenstein; GDP per capita: $118,000

3. United States of America; per capita GDP $47,000

7. To be specific, workers in Western European cities get more than three times the pay of their colleagues in Eastern Europe.

Bermuda Moon gate

. Besides that, Qatar’s oil and gas still reach more than 50 per cent of GDP, roughly 85 per cent of export earnings, and 70 per cent of government revenues.

2. Furthermore, the source of milk is Jersey cattle, a small breed of cow that has also been popular for the quality of its meat. To be specific, the following nations are listed as the richest ones of the world thanks to their high GDP capita.

Norway at night

6. Kuwait; GDP per capita $57,400

Jersey Atlantic Wind Farm

Brunei’s Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah signs a constitutional amendment in Bandar Seri Begawan

8. Brunei has its small, wealthy economy which is a combination of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition.

2.Adb: China’s Gdp Growth to Hit 11.2%, ,cpi to Top 4% in 2007

Jersey’s major agricultural products are potatoes and dairy produce. Singapore; per capita GDP $52,000


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USA White House

Doha Capital of Qatar

Bermuda is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean with its capital is Hamilton. Norway nowadays has rich resources of gas fields, hydropower, fish, forests and minerals.

The US economy is the largest in the world, with an estimated 2008 gross domestic product of $14.3 trillion.

Gross domestic product per capita is an approximation of the value of goods produced per person in the country, equal to the country’s GDP divided by the total number of people in the country. Singapore is now an export driven economy and is one of the Four Asian Tigers along with Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan. Qatar has also had rapid economic growth for the last several years thanks to its high oil prices. Jersey; GDP per capita $57,000

Since its independence on August 9, 1965, Singapore’s standard of living has risen significantly. Therefore, determining a nation whether is rich or not must depend on GDP per capita of this nation. Small-scale organic beef production has also been reintroduced in an effort to diversify the industry.

1. However, the country has a strong financial sector situated in Vaduz and has been identified as a member of the European Free Trade Association. It is also recognized to be the fifth wealthiest country in the world in terms of GDP per capita.

10. Bermuda’s economy has developed thanks to tourism. After the Second World War, the country experienced rapid economic growth. Qatar; GDP per capita $103,500

Lichtenstein, an alpine land in Western Europe, is bordered by Switzerland to the west and south and by Austria to the east.

1. In addition, the Kuwait Stock Exchange, which has about 200 firms listed, is the second-largest stock exchange in the Arab world. High Income With No Investment

Brunei, officially the State of Brunei Darussalam or the Nation of Brunei, Abode of Peace, is a country situated on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia. Brunei; per capita GDP $53,100

5. It is also the oldest British overseas territory

NCAA tournament: Man could win $1 million if Spartans go all the way

Michael L. Jenkins

Michael L. Jenkins

Hi my name is Michael L. Jenkins and I am a sport betting enthusiast. I write articles and review products and services related to Sports Betting Systems and Sports Book's. Please see my blog at Sport Betting Store for more great information on sports betting.
Michael L. Jenkins

7 seeding in the East Regional for the NCAA tournament.

Impressive, but still not exactly money in the bank for Stevens. “I see days where we lose $10,000 to $30,000, but nothing close to $1 million.”

Here’s a simple solution for Miller — just put down $143,000 or so on the Spartans at one of Stevens’ casinos. “The most I’ve ever seen won here was a $100,000 parlay.”

It was also an unusual move for Stevens, a Michigan native who owns the D and Golden Gate hotels in downtown Las Vegas.


Derek Stevens made a $20,000 bet back in December that could result in a $1-million payday on Monday.

When Stevens made the bet, ESPN’s Darren Rovell says, such an occurrence didn’t seem likely because the Spartans had just dropped to 5-3 on the season.

All he needs is for Michigan State to win the national championship.

The Spartans ended up turning their season around and, after an overtime loss to Wisconsin in the Big Ten tournament championship game, earned a No. “I don’t do bets this big.”

“This would be a massive loss for us,” Miller said. With the odds of Michigan State winning the title now at 7-1, he could win back the Golden Nugget’s million dollars.

Problem solved.

FOR THE RECORD: An earlier version of this post had incorrect pairings for the Final Four.

Which is why Tony Miller, sportsbook director at the Golden Nugget Hotel Casino, accepted the bet at 50-1 odds, with the approval of the owner.

“In my nine years at this sportsbook, I never accepted a bet that could result in us paying $1 million,” Miller said. “I bet $1,000 on an NFL game,” Stevens said. But after wins over 10th-seeded Georgia, second-seeded Virginia, third-seeded Oklahoma and fourth-seeded Louisville, Michigan finds itself in the Final Four and Stevens is two wins away from a big payday.

The Spartans have to beat Duke and the Kentucky-Wisconsin winner before the massive payout would occur, but it’s enough to make Miller pretty nervous at this point.


Twitter: @chewkiii

Copyright © 2015, Los Angeles Times

The World’s Most Popular Casino Game: Blackjack

Michael L. Jenkins

Michael L. Jenkins

Hi my name is Michael L. Jenkins and I am a sport betting enthusiast. I write articles and review products and services related to Sports Betting Systems and Sports Book's. Please see my blog at Sport Betting Store for more great information on sports betting.
Michael L. Jenkins

 Needless to say, casinos do not like this, and for that reason manual shoes are not often used.  That means that they will win 0.05% more than you do under basic strategy circumstances.  However, if the dealer had a 5, and you had 16 – you would stay.  It’s usually on the left-hand side of the table.  For the player, this means if they have A, 5 that is announced as ‘6 or 16′.  Consider this: if you shot the gun, it was blank, but did not spin before you shot again.  You spin the chamber, and so on and so forth.  If either player goes over 21, they ‘bust’ – which means they lose.

The best way to explain card counting is the analogy of the game of russian roulette, where there is 1 bullet in a gun chamber that holds 6 shots.  There is a lot to basic strategy which I will delve into in the coming days and link to from this article for your convenience.  With or without live bets on the table …  This is the version played in Europe, Asia and Australia – where every player with a bet in the box is dealt a face-up card, from left to right, and then the dealer, and then every player is dealt a second card.  128 cards out of 416 – almost a third.  You shot again, and it was blank.  However, Blackjack is the only casino game where there is a strategy – it is not just random.  Another 3 come out – there are now 28 Aces.  You shoot the gun and it’s empty.  Now, I have no problem with going to the casino, taking a couple of hundred dollars and just not worrying about the outcomes.  Basic strategy gives the player very exact rules to follow in every situation in the game, in order to give them the best possible chance of winning.  In America, the dealer gets his second card – face-down.

A standard 8 deck game contains 416 cards (52 cards in each deck without the Joker).  You shoot.  So a 10 is worth 10, as is the Jack, Queen or King.  3 to 2 means 1 and a half times the original bet, so $10 wins $15, $30 wins $45, $75 wins $112.50.  Each time you spin, the outcome becomes random – the gun has no memory of what just happened.  A shoe is just the name for the container that holds the cards and where the dealer pulls the cards from.  This is how card counting works – if you are very vigilant and have a good system (Hi-Lo is the most commonly known and used by the famous MIT groups) you can predict what the cards will be by keeping track of what cards have already come out.  No bullet, again.  So, you do not spin.  Players try to make a hand (at least two cards, the value of which is added together) that is 21 or as close to 21 as possible – the dealer or ‘the house’ also draws cards to try to get to 21.  The Ace is worth 1 or 11.  Each time that you spin and shoot, you have a 1 in 6 chance of firing the actual bullet.  For the dealer, the house always takes cards for their highest value, so an A and 9 is not ’10 or 20′ – it’s just 20.. The house or the casino’s edge is as little as 0.05%, if a player plays perfect basic strategy.  The dealer does not get a second card – the house draws when all players have finished making their decision; therefore, what an individual player does directly affects the outcome for all players and the dealer.  Basic strategy refers to using knowledge of the statistical averages of the game to win more hands than lose.  Each time you shoot without spinning the chamber, there is a 1 in 6 chance, then a 1 in 5 chance, then a 1 in 4 chance until there is an extremely high chance at 1 in 3 or 1 in 2 that you will fire the bullet!  Bad game – I don’t recommend it.

What is basic strategy?

What is card counting?

What is the house’s edge in Blackjack?

First off, the Blackjack version referred to below is the one that many people know, love and play – a dealer ‘no hole card’ game.  For example, if you have 16 and the dealer has a picture, you should definitely take another card.  And in a manual shoe (which, by the way, are not used much anymore due to card counting), the dealer generally puts the cards, from each finished hand, away into the discard holder until the cut card reappears.  It traditionally pays 3 to 2.  Shoot again – no bullet.  Queen + Queen is 20.  An Ace and a Picture card – Blackjack!  A + K, 10 + A, etc.  Mathematically speaking, there are 128 cards worth 10 in an 8 deck game.  Blackjack cannot be formed again if you split hands, but that is another story – not something to worry about today.  Chuck it on whatever number on Roulette, whatever side on Baccarat, roll the dice like you just don’t care on Craps.  No difference.  You spin the chamber again.  When 1 Ace comes out, there are now 31 Aces left.  You could bust, but it gives you your best chance of winning if you draw.  Anyway, fast forward to today, and it’s the most-played casino game in the world.  Instead there are electronic shufflers which constantly shuffle the cards (constantly spinning the gun chamber) so it is complete random – card counting = impossible.

All About BlackjackThe Classic Casino Card Game

Blackjack is a game of statistics.  For now, give it a go – even at home with one deck.  Chances are the dealer will bust.  Without spinning, shoot again, etc.  The big question is:

Unlike poker, suits and picture-card ranks mean nothing in this game (except if you’re playing on Perfect Pairs, which is a sidebet).  You can take a card, and another card, or not take any cards.  You don’t have to go into a gambling venue to enjoy the game.  You can split pairs.  You can double down (one card only).  Unlike Roulette where numbers come up completely randomly and there is no ‘winning strategy’.

What is the best hand?

What do the cards mean?

Anyway, in those 8 decks, there are 32 Aces.  King + 10 is 20.  Let’s pretend it’s being dealt with a manual shoe – that means the dealer shuffles the cards well, the cards are cut (generally the player inserts a cut card into the deck, at least 1.5 decks from either end and the dealer moves all the cards in front of the cut card to the back) and the cards are placed in a shoe. it’s a lot of fun!

Blackjack is a game developed over a couple of centuries – Spain and France had the beginning ideas of it in about 1602 AD, in games that were about getting to 21, and bestowing the Ace with a value of 1 or 11.  2 is the lowest, then 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10/J/Q/K.  That’s 1 shot down.  So when a card comes out, it is forevermore taken out of the shoe until a new shuffle.

How does card counting apply to Blackjack?

What is Blackjack?

Blackjack is the best hand you can get – it’s getting 21 on your first two cards.  Jack + King is 20